coined from the Greek indos—for India—and nesos—for island).
Short Form: Indonesia.
Former Names: Netherlands East Indies; Dutch East Indies.
Term for Citizen(s): Indonesian(s).
Capital: Jakarta (Special Capital City Region of Jakarta), located on the north coast of Java.
Major Cities: The eight largest cities in 2004 were Jakarta (Java), Surabaya (Java), Bandung (Java), Medan (Sumatra), Palembang (Sumatra), Semarang (Java), Ujungpandang (Sulawesi), and Tangerang (Java).
Date of Independence: Proclaimed August 17, 1945, from the Netherlands. The Hague recognized Indonesian sovereignty on December 27, 1949.
NATIONAL Public Holidays: Religious holidays (celebrated by followers of that faith): include Imlek (Chinese or Lunar New Year, movable date in January or February); Eid’l Adha (Feast of the Sacrifice of the Prophet Ibrahim, movable date); Hari Raya Nyepi (Balinese Hindu New Year, movable date in March or April); Hijriyah (Islamic New Year, first day of Muharram, first month of the Islamic calendar, variable date); Good Friday (movable date in March or April); Maulid (Birthday of the Prophet Muhammad, movable date); Waisak (Buddha’s Birthday, movable date in May or June); Ascension of Christ (movable date in May or June); Isra Miraj Nabi Muhammad (Night Journey and Ascension of the Prophet Muhammad, movable date); Eid’l Fitri (end of the month of Ramadan, variable cluster of two days, often late in the year); and Christmas (December 25). Other days commemorated include: New Year’s Day, January 1; National Education Day, May 2; National Awakening Day, May 20; National Children’s Day, July 23; Independence Day, August 17; National Sports Day, September 8; Armed Forces Day, October 5; Youth Pledge Day, October 28; Heroes’ Day, November 10; and Women’s Day, December 22.
The Indonesian flag has two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and
white. It is similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter, and also
to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red.