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Albania - REFERENCE




Albania - Appendix Tables

Albania: Table 1. Metric Conversion Coofficients and Factors">
 
When you kow Multiply by To find
Millimeters 0.04 inches
Centimeters 0.39 inches
Meters 3.3 feet
Kilometers 0.62 miles
Hectares 2.47 acres
Square kilometers 0.39 square miles
Cubic meters 35.3 cubic feet
Liters 0.26 gallons
Kilograms 2.2 pounds
Metric tons 0.98 long tons
  1.1 short tons
  2,204 pounds
Degrees Celsius (Centigrade) 1.8 and add 32 degrees Fahrenheit

Albania: Table 2. Population of Largest Cities and Towns, 1987">
 
City or Town Population City or Town Population
Tiranė 226,000 Berat 40,500
Durrės 78,700 Fier 40,300
Elbasan 78,300 Lushnjė 26,900
Shkodėr 76,300 Kavajė 24,200
Vlorė 67,700 Gjirokastėr 23,800
Korēė 61,500 Kuēovė 20,600

Source: Based on information from Vjetari Statistiskor i R.P.S. Tė Shqipėrisė, 1988 (Statistical Yearbook of the Peoples Socialist Republic of Albania, 1988), Tiranė, 1988, 26- 28.

Albania: Table 3. Structure of Realized Net Material Product by Sector, Selected Years, 1938-83">
(in percentages, using 1981 prices)*
Sector 1938 1950 1960 1970 1980 1983
Agriculture 93.1 73.2 37.6 34.2 32.7 34.1
Industry 3.8 7.0 18.6 28.2 43.6 43.3
Construction 0.8 3.1 6.5 7.1 6.7 7.8
Services 2.3 16.7 37.3 30.5 17.0 14.8
TOTAL 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

* Net material product--see Glossary.

Source: Based on information from Economist Intelligence Unit, Country Profile: Bulgaria, Albania, 1990-91, London, 1990, 37.

Albania: Table 4. Key Economic Indicators, 1961-88">
(in percentage average annual increase)
  1961-70 1971-80 1981-88
Net material product1 7.4 4.6 1.72
Global social product 8.3 5.4 2.22
Net material product per capita 4.4 2.2 - 0.3
Gross industrial production 9.8 7.5 2.8
Industrial labor productivity3 1.5 1.8 - 1.3
Gross agricultural production 6.0 3.8 1.5
Agricultural labor productivity3 1.0 -0.2 - 2.0
Freight transportation4 9.0 6.7 0.8
Gross investment 8.4 4.9 1.5
Retail sales5 5.7 4.6 3.4

1 Net material product--see Glossary.
2 Estimated.
3 Labor productivity is defined as gross production per employee.
4 Domestic transportation by road, rail, and sea as measured in ton-kilometers.
5 At current prices.

Sources: Based on information from Per Sandstrom and Örjan Sjöberg, ""Albanian Economic Performance: Stagnation in the 1980s,"" Soviet Studies [Glasgow], 43, No. 5, 1991, 937.

Albania: Table 5. Net Material Product by Branch of Origin, 1986, 1988, and 1990">
(in millions of leks)*
Branch of Origin 1986 1988 1990
Net industrial production 20,128 20,821 20,033
Net agricultural production 8,828 8,376 8,591
Construction 2,861 2,851 2,820
Transportation 971 991 904
Domestic trade 892 848 788
Foreign trade 727 720 777
Other 355 348 365
TOTAL 34,762 34,955 34,278

* For value of the lek--see Glossary.

Source: Based on information from Anders Aslund and Örjan Sjöberg, ""Privatization and Transition to a Market Economy in Albania,"" Communist Economics and Economic Transformation [Abingdon, United Kingdom], 4, No. 1, 1992, 137.

Albania: Table 6. Structure of Work Force by Sector, Selected Years, 1960-87">
(in percentages)
Sector 1960 1970 1980 1985 1987
Agriculture 55.6 52.2 51.4 51.3 52.0
Industry 15.1 19.2 21.8 22.3 22.9
Construction 11.4 9.9 9.1 8.0 7.1
Transportation and communications 2.0 2.3 2.5 2.9 2.9
Trade 5.9 5.9 4.8 4.8 4.6
Education and culture 3.4 4.7 4.6 4.5 4.4
Health 2.7 2.6 3.0 2.8 2.9
Other 3.9 3.2 2.8 3.4 3.2
TOTAL 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Source: Based on information from Vjetari Statistiskor i R.P.S. Tė Shqipėrisė, 1988 (Statistical Yearbook of the Peoples Socialist Republic of Albania, 1988), Tiranė, 1988, 69.

Albania: Table 7. Primary Agricultural Output, Selected Years, 1979-88">
(in thousands of tons)
Product 1979-811 1985 1987 1988
Wheat 492 530 565 589
Corn 318 400 320 306
All cereals 916 1,055 1,010 1,024
Potatoes 112 136 135 137
Meat2 52 54 55 56
Vegetables (including melons) 193 186 188 188
Tomatoes 44 47 48 48
Fruit (excluding melons) 156 193 210 216
Sugar beets 298 320 360 360
Milk 326 342 346 347
Eggs 10 13.2 13.2 14

1 Annual averages.
2 Beef, mutton, and pork.

Source: Based on information from Economist Intelligence Unit, Country Profile: Bulgaria, Albania, 1990-91, London, 1990, 40.

Albania: Table 8. Structure of Industry, Selected Years, 1950-88">
(in percentages)
Product 1950 1960 1970 1980 1985 1988
Food 64.1 43.5 30.4 25.6 25.3 24.7
Oil 18.8 15.5 14.9 9.2 5.7 5.2
Light industry 7.8 21.6 19.9 15.5 16.3 16.2
Wood and paper 6.7 11.2 8.0 5.8 5.8 5.1
Building materials 3.3 4.7 5.6 7.9 6.3 5.8
Engineering 3.1 2.9 7.6 12.5 14.7 14.5
Copper 2.2 0.8 5.2 6.4 7.6 8.8
Chromite 2.1 2.0 1.3 1.7 1.7 2.0
Printing 1.6 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.7
Coal 1.4 1.6 1.5 1.3 1.7 1.7
Electric power 0.5 1.1 2.0 3.6 2.9 3.1
Chemicals 0.3 0.6 3.3 4.7 5.5 5.9
Glass and ceramies --- 0.2 0.6 0.8 0.8 0.9
Iron and metallurgy n.a. 1.3 2.2 3.0 3.4 3.8
Other 1.5 0.2 0.3 1.1 1.2 1.5
TOTAL* 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

---means negligible.
n.a.--not available.
*Figures may not add to 100 percent because of rounding or because of unverified information in source.

Source: Based on information from Vjetari Statistiskor i R.P.S. Tė Shqipėrisė, 1988 (Statistical Yearbook of the Peoples Socialist Republic of Albania, 1988), Tiranė, 1988.

Albania: Table 9. Output of Main Industrial Products, 1980, 1985, and 1988">
(in thousands of tons unless otherwise indicated)
Product 1980 1985 1988
Electric power (in millions of kilowatt-hours) 3,717 3,147 3,984
Blister copper 9.8 11 15
Copper wire and cable 5.7 9.4 116
Carbonic ferrochrome 12.2 11.9 38.7
Metallurgical coke 173 250 291
Rolled wrought steel 96 107 96
Phosphate fertilizer 150 157 165
Ammonium nitrate 109 95 96
Urea 88 78 77
Sulfuric acid 72 73 81
Caustic soda 25 29 31
Soda ash 23 22 22
Machinery and equipment (in millions of leks)* 350 465 496
Spare parts (in millions of leks)* 327 407 493
Cement 826 642 746
Bricks and tiles (in millions of pieces) 294 295 319
Refractory bricks (in millions of pieces) 4.8 28 30
Heavy cloth (in millions of meters) 12.5 12.3 11.3
Knitwear (in millions of pieces) 9.8 11 12.1
Footwear (in thousands of pairs) 4,735 4,800 5,396
Television receivers (in thousands) 21 21.3 16.5
Radio receivers (in thousands) 8 16 25
Cigarettes (in millions of pieces) 4,950 5,348 5,310
Soap and detergent 14.7 18.2 21.5

* For value of the lek--see Glossary.

Source: Based on information from The Europa World Year Book, 1991, 1, London, 1991, 301.

Albania: Table 10. Production of Energy and Mineral Ores, Selected Years, 1980-88">
(in thousands of tons unless otherwise indicated)
Product 1980 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988
Energy
Coal 1,418 2,010 2,100 2,230 2,130 2,184
Crude oil 1,900* 1,300* 1,200* 1,400* 1,200 1,200*
Electricity (in gigawatt-hours) 3,717 3,800 3,147 5,070 4,200* 3,984
Ores
Chromite 1,004 960 1,111 1,207 1,080 1,109
Copper 769 1,007 989 1,024 1,160 1,087
Ferronickel 597 1,080 905 n.a. 970 1,067

n.a.--not available.
* Estimated.

Sources: Based on information from Per Sandstrom and Örjan Sjöberg, ""Albanian Economic Performance: Stagnation in the 1980s,"" Soviet Studies [Glasgow], 43, No. 5, 1991, 941.

Albania: Table 11. Major Trading Partners, 1982-87">
(in millions of United States dollars)
Country 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987
Imports
Yugoslavia 74 50 43 42 46 37*
Italy 42 28 27 15 9 26
Bulgaria 23 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Romania 19 27 20 22 23* 25*
West Germany 17 17 15 13 21 16
France 16 8 12 15 7 6
Poland 15 15 11 12* 12* 13*
Greece 13 18 10 3 56 14*
Hungary 12 9 8 10 11 13
China 4 7 2 6 13 19
United States 3 4 3 4 4 2
Britain n.a. n.a. 2 n.a. n.a. n.a.
Exports
Yugoslavia 74 38 46 41 47 49
West Germany 36 22 14 16 18 16
Italy 32 27 22 20 21 34
Romania 27 30 25 27 28* 31*
Bulgaria 23 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Poland 18 18 12 13* 14* 15*
United States 17 4 9 12 5 3
Greece 12 8 7 9 6 4*
Hungary 11 10 8 10 14 13
France 9 15 28 17 6 8
Britain 8 5 6 7 4 4
China n.a. 4 3 10 9 15

n.a.--not available.
* Estimated.

Source: Based on information from Economist Intelligence Unit, Country Profile: Bulgaria, Albania, 1990-91, London, 1990, 47; and International Monetary Fund, Direction of Trade Statistics, Washington, n.d.

Albania: Table 12. Major Imports, Selected Years, 1970-88">
(in percentages)
Product 1970 1975 1980 1985 1988
Capital goods 32.8 45.2 21.7 25.1 31.5
Spare parts 7.2 3.8 2.5 5.3 4.8
Fuels and minerals 21.6 21.4 35.8 27.0 23.1
Chemicals 9.4 8.3 14.9 14.1 12.7
Building materials 1.8 0.9 2.6 1.4 0.1
Nonedible agricultural products 14.7 11.3 13.5 12.8 13.5
Foodstuffs 3.4 5.0 4.0 8.3 8.1
Consumer goods 7.7 4.1 5.0 6.0 6.2
TOTAL* 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

* Figures may not add to total because of rounding.

Source: Based on information from Gramoz Pashko, ""The Albanian Economy at the Beginning of the 1990s,"" in Örjan Sjöberg and Michael L. Wyzan (eds.), Economic Change in the Balkan States: Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, and Yugoslavia, London, 1991, 137.

Albania: Table 13. Major Exports, Selected Years, 1970-88">
(in percentages)
Product 1970 1975 1980 1985 1988
Fuels 27.4 25.7 29.0 15.1 7.9
Electric power n.a. 2.9 9.1 7.8 7.3
Minerals and metals 31.1 26.9 24.5 31.5 39.8
Chemicals 1.2 0.3 1.2 0.7 0.8
Building materials 0.1 0.7 1.5 1.0 1.5
Nonedible agricultural products 13.1 9.4 10.4 14.6 16.1
Processed foods 15.1 15.5 8.4 10.8 8.7
Unprocessed foods 4.4 6.3 5.4 8.1 8.2
Consumer goods 7.6 12.3 10.5 10.7 9.7
TOTAL* 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

n.a.--not available.
* Figures may not add to total because of rounding.

Source: Based on information from Gramoz Pashko, ""The Albanian Economy at the Beginning of the 1990s,"" in Örjan Sjöberg and Michael L. Wyzan (eds.), Economic Change in the Balkan States: Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, and Yugoslavia, London, 1991, 137.

Albania - Bibliography

Chapter 1

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Chapter 2

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   (Various issues of the followings periodicals were also used
in the preparation of this chapter: Albania Today
[Tiranė] and New Albania [Tiranė].)

Chapter 3

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     Serfdom: Mineral Resources Might Pave the Road to the West,
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"Heavy Industry in Tiny Balkan State Causing Serious Pollution,
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Hutchings, Raymond. "Albanian Industrialization: Widening
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     (eds.), "Industrialisierung und gesellschaftlicher Wandel in
     Sudosteuropa." (Sudosteuropa-Studien, No. 42.) Munich:
     Sudosteuropa-Gesellschaft, 1989.

International Monetary Fund. Direction of Trade
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Jelavich, Barbara. History of the Balkans. (2 vols.)
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     March 23, 1990, 26-27.

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     in United States Congress, 99th, 2d Session, Joint Economic
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     the 1980s. (Country Studies in Eastern Europe and
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Lampe, John R., and Marvin R. Jackson. Balkan Economic
     History, 1550-1950. Bloomington: Indiana University
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Lange, Klaus. Die Agrarfrage in der Politik der Partei der
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Lhomel, Edith. "L'economie albanaise en 1990-1991: la veritable
     mesure d'un echec," Le Courrier des Pays de l'Est
     [Paris], No. 362, September 1991, 62-76.

"New Economic Ideas," Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty,
     Report on Eastern Europe, 3, No. 2, January 11,
     1991, 8.

O'Donnell, Timothy S., et al. (eds.). World Economic
     Data. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 1991.

Pano, Nicholas C.. The People's Republic of Albania.
     Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1968.

Pashko, Gramoz. "The Albanian Economy at the Beginning of the
     1990s." Pages 128-46 in Örjan Sjöberg and Michael L. Wyzan
     (eds.). Economic Change in the Balkan States: Albania,
     Bulgaria, Romania, and Yugoslavia. London: Pinter.

Prifti, Peter. Socialist Albania since 1944: Domestic and
     Foreign Developments. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1978.

Rabchevsky, George A. "Geology and Chromite Industry of Albania,"
     Earth Science, 33, Autumn 1980, 172.

Reed, Carol. "Investors Help Albania Make Modest Steps Toward
     Free Enterprise," Washington Post, August 13, 1991,
     C3.

Russ, Wolfgang. Der Entwicklungsweg Albaniens. Ein Beitrag
     zum Konzept autozentrierter Entwicklung. Konigstein,
     West Germany: Verlag Anton Hain, 1979.

Sandstrom, Per, and Örjan Sjöberg. "Albanian Economic
     Performance: Stagnation in the 1980s," Soviet
     Studies [Glasgow], 43, No. 5, 1991, 931-47.

Schnytzer, Adi. "Albania: The Purge of Stalinist Economic
     Ideology." Pages 44-61 in Ian Jeffries (ed.), Industrial
     Reform in Socialist Countries: From Restructuring to
     Revolution. Aldershot, United Kingdom: Elgar, 1992.

------. Stalinist Economic Strategy in Practice: The Case of
     Albania. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982.

Sjöberg, Örjan. "A Contribution to the Geography of
     Hydro-Electric Power Generation in Albania,"
     Osterreichische Osthefte [Vienna], 29, No. 1, 1987,
     5-27.

------. Rural Change and Development in Albania.
     Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1991.

Sjöberg, Örjan, and Per Sandstrom. The Albanian Statistical
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Skendi, Stavro, et al. (eds.). Albania. New York:
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     Courrier des Pays de l'Est [Paris], No. 330, July-
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Steiger, Cyrill. "Albania's Unresolved National Question,"
     Swiss Review of World Affairs [Zurich], No. 5, May
     1992, 23-24.

------. "Albania: Up from Misery," Swiss Review of World
     Affairs [Zurich], No. 7, July 1993, 11-12.

United States. Department of State. Foreign Service Institute.
     A Reader's Guide to Albania. Washington: 1990.

Vjetari Statistikor i R.P.S. Tė Shqiperise, 1988.
     (Statistical Yearbook of the People's Socialist Republic of
     Albania, 1988.) Tiranė: Komisioni i Planit Tė Shtetit,
     Drejtoria e Statistikes, 1988.

Vjetari statistikor in Shqiperise, 1989. (Statistical
     Yearbook of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania,
     1989). Tiranė: Drejtoria e Statistikes, 1989.

Wildermuth, Andreas. Die Krise der albanischen
     Landwirtschaft. Losungsversuche der Partei- und
     Staatsfuhrung unter Ramiz Alia. Neuried bei München,
     West Germany: Hieronymus, 1989.

Wolff, Robert Lee. The Balkans in Our Time. Cambridge:
     Harvard University Press, 1956.

   (Various issues of the following periodicals were also used in
the preparation of this chapter: Business East Europe;
Business International; The Christian Science
Monitor; and Foreign Broadcast Information Service,
Daily Report.)

Chapter 4

Artisien, Patrick F.R. "Albania after Hoxha," SAIS
     Review, 6, No. 1, Winter-Spring 1986, 159-68.

Biberaj, Elez. Albania: A Socialist Maverick. Boulder,
     Colorado: Westview Press, 1990.

------. "Albania at the Crossroads," Problems of
     Communism, 40, September-October 1991, 1-16.

------. Kosovo: The Balkan Powder Keg. London: Research
     Institute for the Study of Conflict and Terrorism, 1993.

Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe. Report on
     the United States Helsinski Commission Delegation Visit to
     Hungary, Yugoslavia and Albania. Washington: GPO, 1991.

Logoreci, Anton. The Albanians: Europe's Forgotten
     Survivors. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1977.

Marmullaku, Ramadan. Albania and the Albanians. Hamden,
     New York: Archon Books, 1975.

Myrdal, Jan, and Gun Kessle. Albania Defiant. New York:
     Monthly Review Press, 1976.

Prifti, Peter R. Socialist Albania since 1944.
     Cambridge: MIT Press, 1978.

Staar, Richard F. "People's Socialist Republic of Albania." Pages
     1-31 in Richard F. Staar (ed.), Communist Regimes in
     Eastern Europe. Stanford, California: Hoover
     Institution Press, 1988.

Stavrou, Nikolaos A. "Albania: The Domino That Refuses to Fall,"
     Mediterranean Quarterly, 1, No. 2, Spring 1990, 25-
     41.

United States. Department of State. Country Reports on Human
     Rights Practices for 1990. (Report submitted to United
     States Congress, 102d, 1st Session. House of
     Representatives, Committee on Foreign Affairs, and Senate,
     Committee on Foreign Relations.) Washington: GPO, February
     1991.

United States. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs.
     Albania: Background Notes. (Department of State
     Publication No. 8217.) Washington: GPO, 1986.

Zanga, Louis. "Albania: Democratic Revival and Social Upheaval,"
     RFE/RL Research Report [Munich], 2, No. 1, January
     1, 1993, 75-77.

------. "Advocates of Democracy in Albania," Radio Free
     Europe/Radio Liberty, Report on Eastern Europe
     [Munich], 1, No. 25, June 22, 1990, 1-4.

------. "Albania and Turkey Forge Closes Ties," RFE/RL
     Research Report [Munich], 2, No. 11, March 12, 1993,
     30-33.

------. "The Albanian Democratic Party," Radio Free Europe/Radio
     Liberty, Report on Eastern Europe [Munich], 2, No.
     9, March 1, 1991, 1-6.

------. "Albania-Greek Relations Reach a Low Point," RFE/RL
     Research Report [Munich], 1, No. 14, April 10, 1992,
     18-21.

------. "Albanian President Defends His First Year in Office,"
     RFE/RL Research Report [Munich], 2, No. 29, July
     16, 1993, 23-26.

------. "Albania's New Path," Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty,
     Report on Eastern Europe [Munich], 1, No. 24, June
     15, 1990, 1-5.

------. "Cabinet Changes in Albania," RFE/RL Research
     Report [Munich], 2, No. 19, May 7, 1993, 14-16.

------. "Central Committee Proposals for Reform," Radio Free
     Europe/Radio Liberty, Report on Eastern Europe
     [Munich], 1, No. 9, March 2, 1990, 1-3.

------. "The Conflict Escalates," Radio Free Europe/Radio
     Liberty, Report on Eastern Europe [Munich], 2, No.
     11, March 15, 1991, 1-4.

------. "A Crisis of Confidence," Radio Free Europe/Radio
     Liberty, Report on Eastern Europe [Munich], 2, No.
     16, April 19, 1991, 1-4.

------. "Daunting Tasks for Albania's New Government," RFE/RL
     Research Report [Munich], 1, No. 21, May 22, 1992, 11-
     17.

------. "A Progress Report on Changes in Albania," Radio Free
     Europe/Radio Liberty, Report on Eastern Europe
     [Munich], 1, No. 16, April 20, 1990, 1-3.

------. "Ramiz Alia under Great Pressure," Radio Free
     Europe/Radio Liberty, Report on Eastern Europe
     [Munich], 2, No. 8, February 22, 1991, 1-4.

Chapter 5

Austin, Robert. "What Albania Adds to the Balkan Stew"
     Orbis, 37, No. 2, Spring 1993, 259-79.

Biberaj, Elez. Albania: A Socialist Maverick. Boulder,
     Colorado: Westview Press, 1990.

The Encyclopedia of Military History (Eds., R. Ernest
     Dupny and Trevor Dupny.) New York: Harper and Row, 1970.

Foreign Broadcast Information Service--FBIS (Washington). The
     following items are from the FBIS series:

Daily Report: East Europe.

"Albanians Cross Yugoslav Border `Illegally'." (FBIS-EEU-90-131,
     July 9, 1990, 24.).

"Army under Surveillance." (FBIS-EEU-90-026, February 7, 1990, 8-
     9.).

"ATA Carries Profiles of New Ministers." (FBIS-EEU-90-133, July
     11, 1990, 3.).

"Defense Minister: Army Size `Must Be Cut'." (FBIS-EEU-92-082,
     April 28, 1992, 2.).

"Four Armed Albanian Surrender in Yugoslavia." (FBIS-EEU-90-017,
     January 25, 1990, 3.).

"Kico Mustaqi Speaks to Army Veterans." (FBIS-EEU-90-180,
     September 17, 1990, 4.).

"Massacre Allegedly Took Place in Tirana at the Beginning of
     July." (FBIS-EEU-90-173, September 6, 1990, 1.).

"Minister Mustaqi Speaks on Anniversary of Navy." (FBIS-EEU-90-
     160, August 17, 1990.).

"National Army Youth Aktiv Holds Its Proceedings." (FBIS-EEU-90-
173, September 6, 1990, 1-2.).

"A Principle Turned Upside Down--On a Proposal for the Draft
     Constitution in the Newspaper Rilindja Demokratike." (FBIS-
     EEU-91-019, January 29, 1991, 4-5.).

"Revolts in Albania." (FBIS-EEU-90-010, January 16, 1990, 11-
12.).

"Statement of the Council of Ministers of the PSRA on Albania's
     Participation in the CSCE." (FBIS-EEU-90-180, September 17,
     1990, 1.).

Jane's All the World's Aircraft, 1990-91. (Ed., Mark
     Lambert.) Coulsdon, United Kingdom: Jane's, 1990.

 Jane's Armour and Artillery, 1989-90. (Ed., Christopher
     F. Foss.) Coulsdon, United Kingdom: Jane's, 1989.

Jane's Fighting Ships, 1990-91. (Ed., Richard Sharpe.)
     Coulsdon, United Kingdom: Jane's, 1990.

Joint Publications Research Service--JPRS (Washington). The
     following items are from the JPRS series:

East Europe Report.

"Democracy and Public Order," Zeri i Rinise [Tiranė],
     August 3, 1991. (JPRS-EER-91-130, August 30, 1991, 1-5.).

"Eleven Years Lost in Albanian Prisons, Svenska
     Dagbladet [Stockholm], March 24, 1991. (JPRS-EER-91-
     060, May 6, 1991, 1-3.).

"For a Profound Restructuring of the Army," Rilindja
     Demokratike [Tiranė], July 20, 1991. (JPRS-EER-91-144,
     September 26, 1991, 3.).

"The Jails: The Hell and Shame of the Dictatorship,"
     Bashkimi [Tiranė], July 21, 1991. (JPRS-EER-91-121,
     August 13, 1991, 1-4.).

"Law on Amnesty for Political Prisoners," Gazeta Zyrtare
     [Tiranė], October 1991. (JPRS-EER-92-024-S, March 3, 1992,
     1-2.).

"Should the Sale of Arms Be Legalized or Should All Weapons Be
     Confiscated?" Bashkimi [Tiranė], July 17, 1991.
     (JPRS-EER-91-113, August 1, 1991, 2-3.).

Lange, Klaus. "Albanian Security Policies: Concepts, Meaning and
     Realisation." Pages 209-19 in Jonathan Eyal (ed.), The
     Warsaw Pact and the Balkans: Moscow's Southern Flank.
     New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989.

Larrabee, F. Stephen. "Long Memories and Short Fuses: Change and
     Instability in the Balkans," International
     Security, 15, No. 3, Winter 1990-91, 58-91.

The Military Balance, 1990-1991. London: International
     Institute for Strategic Studies, 1990.

Nelson, Daniel N. Balkan Imbroglio: Politics and Security in
     Southeastern Europe. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press,
     1991.

Pollo, Stefanaq, and Arben Puto. The History of Albania: From
     Its Origins to the Present Day. London: Routledge and
     Kegan Paul, 1981.

Zanga, Louis. "Increase in Crime and Other Social Problems,"
     Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Report on Eastern
     Europe, 2, No. 39, September 27, 1991, 1-4.

------. "Military Undergoes Reforms," Radio Free Europe/Radio
     Liberty, Report on Eastern Europe, 2, No. 46,
     November 15, 1991, 1-3.

------. "The New Government and Its Program," Radio Free
     Europe/Radio Liberty, Report on Eastern Europe, 2,
     No. 23, June 7, 1991, 1-5.

------. "Sigurimi Dissolved and Replaced," Radio Free
     Europe/Radio Liberty, Report on Eastern Europe, 2,
     No. 35, August 30, 1991, 19-21.

Albania - Glossary

bajrak
A political union of Geg clans under a single head, the bajraktar (q.v.). Term literally means "standard" or "banner".
bajraktar
The hereditary leader of a bajrak (q.v.). Term literally means "standard bearer".
Bektashi
An order of dervishes of the Shia branch of the Muslim faith founded, according to tradition, by Hajji Bektash Wali of Khorasan, in present-day Iran, in the thirteenth century and given definitive form by Balim, a sultan of the Ottoman Empire in the sixteenth century. Bektashis continue to exist in the Balkans, primarily in Albania, where their chief monastery is at Tiranė.
bey
ruler of a province under the Ottoman Empire.
caliph
Title of honor adopted by the Ottoman sultans in the sixteenth century, after Sultan Selim I conquered Syria and Palestine, made Egypt a satellite of the Ottoman Empire, and was recognized as guardian of the holy cities of Mecca and Medina. Term literally means "successor"; in this context, the successor of the Prophet Muhammad.
Comecon (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance)
A multilateral economic alliance headquartered in Moscow. Albania was effectively expelled from Comecon in 1962 after the rift in relations between Moscow and Tiranė. Members in 1989 were Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, the German Democratic Republic (East Germany), Hungary, Mongolia, Poland, Romania, the Soviet Union, and Vietnam. Comecon was created in 1949, ostensibly to promote economic development of member states through cooperation and specialization, but actually to enforce Soviet economic domination of Eastern Europe and to provide a counterweight to the Marshall Plan. Also referred to as CEMA or CMEA.
Cominform (Communist Information Bureau)
An international organization of communist parties, founded and controlled by the Soviet Union in 1947 and dissolved in 1956. The Cominform published propaganda touting international communist solidarity but was primarily a tool of Soviet foreign policy. The Communist Party of Yugoslavia was expelled in June 1948.
Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE)
Furthers European security through diplomacy, based on respect for human rights, and a wide variety of policies and commitments of its more than fifty Atlantic, European, and Asian member countries. Founded in August 1975, in Helsinki, when thirty-five nations signed the Final Act, a politically binding declaratory understanding of the democratic principles governing relations among nations, which is better known as the Helsinki Accords (q.v.).
Constantinople
Originally a Greek city, Byzantium, it was made the capital of the Byzantine Empire by Constantine the Great and was soon renamed Constantinople in his honor. The city was captured by the Turks in 1453 and became the capital of the Ottoman Empire. The Turks called the city Istanbul, but most of the non-Muslim world knew it as Constantinople until about 1930.
cult of personality
A term coined by Nikita Khrushchev at the Twentieth Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1956 to describe the rule of Joseph Stalin, during which the Soviet people were compelled to deify the dictator. Other communist leaders, particularly Albania's Enver Hoxha, followed Stalin's example and established a cult of personality around themselves.
democratic centralism
A Leninist doctrine requiring discussion of issues until a decision is reached by the party. After a decision is made, discussion concerns only planning and execution. This method of decision making directed lower bodies unconditionally to implement the decisions of higher bodies.
European Community (EC)
The EC comprises three communities: the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), the European Economic Community (EEC, also known as the Common Market), and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). Each community is a legally distinct body, but since 1967 they have shared common governing institutions. The EC forms more than a framework for free trade and economic cooperation: the signatories to the treaties governing the communities have agreed in principle to integrate their economies and ultimately to form a political union. Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and the Federal Republic of Germany (then West Germany) are charter members of the EC. Britain, Denmark, and Ireland joined on January 1, 1973; Greece became a member on january 1, 1981; and Portugal and Spain entered on January 1, 1986. In late 1991, Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Poland applied for membership.
European Currency Unit (ECU)
Instituted in 1979, the ECU is the unit of account of the EC (q.v.). The value of the ECU is determined by the value of a basket that includes the currencies of all EC member states. In establishing the value of the basket, each member's currency receives a share that reflects the relative strength and importance of the member's economy. In 1987 one ECU was equivalent to about one United States dollar.
European Economic Community (EEC)
See EC.
GDP (gross domestic product)
A measure of the total value of goods and services produced by the domestic economy during a given period, usually one year. Obtained by adding the value contributed by each sector of the economy in the form of profits, compensation to employees, and depreciation (consumption of capital). Only domestic production is included, not income arising from investments and possessions owned abroad, hence the use of the word domestic to distinguish GDP from gross national product (GNP--q.v.). Real GDP is the value of GDP when inflation has been taken into account.
glasnost'
Public discussion of issues; accessibility of information so that the public can become familiar with it and discuss it. The policy in the Soviet Union in the mid- to late 1980's of using the media to make information available on some controversial issues, in order to provoke public discussion, challenge government and party bureaucrats, and mobilize greater support for the policy of perestroika (q.v.).
GNP (gross national product)
GDP (q.v.) plus the net income or loss stemming from transactions with foreign countries. GNP is the broadest measurement of the output of goods and services by an economy. It can be calculated at market prices, which include indirect taxes and subsidies. Because indirect taxes and subsidies are only transfer payments, GNP is often calculated at a factor cost, removing indirect taxes and subsidies.
Helsinki Accords
Signed in August by all the countries of Europe (except Albania) plus Canada and the United States at the conclusion of the first meeting of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, the Helsinki Accords endorsed general principles of international behavior and measures to enhance security and addressed selected economic, environmental, and humanitarian issues. In essence, the Helsinki Accords confirmed existing, post-World War II national boundaries and obligated signatories to respect basic principles of human rights. Helsinki Watch groups were formed in 1976 to monitor compliance. The term Helsinki Accords is the short form for the Final Act of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe and is also known as the Final Act.
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Established along with the World Bank (q.v.) in 1945, the IMF has regulatory surveillance, and financial functions that apply to its more than 150 member countries and is responsible for stabilizing international exchange rates and payments. Its main function is to provide loans to its members (including industrialized and developing countries) when they experience balance of payments difficulties. These loans frequently have conditions that require substantial internal economic adjustments by recipients, most of which are developing countries. Albania joined the IMF in October 1991.
janissaries
Soldiers, usually of non-Turkish origin, who belonged to an elite infantry corps of the Ottoman army. Formed a self- regulating guild, administered by a council of elected unit commanders. From the Turkish yeniēeri; literally, new troops.
Kosovo
A province of the Serbian Republic of Yugoslavia that shares a border with Albania and has a population that is about 90 percent Albanian. Serbian nationalists fiercely resist Albanian control of Kosovo, citing Kosovo's history as the center of a medieval Serbian Kingdom that ended in a defeat by the Ottoman Turks at the Battle of Kosovo Polje in 1389. Residents of Kosovo are known as Kosovars.
lek (L)
Albanian national currency unit consisting of 100 qintars. In early 1991, the official exchange rate was L6.75 to US$1; in September 1991, it was L25 = US$1; and in January 1992, the exchange rate was L50 = US$1.
machine tractor stations
State organizations that owned the major equipment needed by farmers and obtained the agricultural products from collectivized farms. First developed in the Soviet Union and adopted by Albania during the regime of Enver Hoxha.
Marxism-Leninism/Marxist-Leninist
The ideology of communism, developed by Karl Marx and refined and adapted to social and economic conditions in Russia by Lenin, which guided the communist parties of many countries including Albania and the Soviet Union. Marx talked of the establishment of the dictatorship of the proletariat after the overthrow of the bourgeoisie as a transitional socialist phase before the achievement of communism. Lenin added the idea of a communist party as the vanguard or leading force in promoting the proletarian revolution and building communism. Stalin and subsequent East European leaders, including Enver Hoxha, contributed their own interpretations of the ideology.
most-favored-nation status
Under the provisions of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), when one country accords another most-favored- nation status it agrees to extend to that country the same trade concessions, e.g., lower tariffs or reduced nontariff barriers, which it grants to any other recipients having most-favored- nation status. As of January 1992, Albania had not been a member of GATT and had not received most-favored-nation status from the United States.
net material product
The official measure of the value of goods and services produced in Albania, and in other countries having a planned economy, during a given period, usually a year. It approximates the term gross national product (GNP--q.v.) used by economists in the United States and in other countries having a market economy. The measure, developed in the Soviet Union, was based on constant prices, which do not fully account for inflation, and excluded depreciation.
Ottoman Empire
Formed in thirteenth and fourteenth centuries when Osman I, a Muslim prince, and his successors, known in the West as Ottomans, took over the Byzantine territories of western Anatolia and southeastern Europe and conquered the eastern Anatolian Turkmen principalities. The Ottoman Empire disintegrated at the end of World War I; the center was reorganized as the Republic of Turkey, and the outlying provinces became separate states.
pasha
Title of honor held by members of the Muslim ruling class in the Ottoman Empire.
perestroika (restructuring)
Mikhail S. Gorbachev's campaign in the Soviet Union in the mid- to late 1980s to revitalize the economy, party, and society by adjusting economic, political, and social mechanisms. Announced at the Twenty-Seventh Party Congress in August 1986.
Shia (from Shiat Ali, the Party of Ali)
A member of the smaller of the two great divisions of Islam. The Shia supported the claims of Ali and his line to presumptive right to the caliphate and leadership of the Muslim community, and on this issue they divided from the Sunni (q.v.) in the first great schism within Islam. In 1944, when the communists assumed power in Albania, about 25 percent of the country's Muslims belonged to an offshoot of the Shia branch known as Bektashi (q.v.).
Stalinism/Stalinist
The authoritarian practices, including mass terror, and bureaucratic applications of the principles of Marxism-Leninism (q.v.) in the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin and in East European communist countries.
Sublime Porte (or Porte)
The palace entrance that provided access to the chief minister of the Ottoman Empire, who represented the government and the sultan (q.v.). Term came to mean the Ottoman government.
sultan
The supreme ruler of the Ottoman Empire. Officially called the padishah (Persian for high king or emperor), the sultan was at the apex of the empire's political, military, judicial, social, and religious hierarchy.
Sunni (from Sunna, meaning "custom," having connotations of orthodoxy in theory and practice)
A member of the larger of the two great divisions within Islam. The Sunnis supported the traditional (consensual) method of election to the caliphate and accepted the Umayyad line. On this issue, they divided from the Shia (q.v.) in the first great schism within Islam. In 1944, when the communists assumed power in Albania, about 75 percent of the country's Muslims were Sunnis.
Titoist
A follower of the political, economic, and social policies associated with Josip Broz Tito, Yugoslav prime minister from 1943 and later president until his death in 1980, whose nationalistic policies and practices were independent of and often in opposition to those of the Soviet Union.
Treaty of San Stefano
A treaty signed by Russia and the Ottoman Empire on March 3, 1878, concluding the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78. If implemented, would have greatly reduced Ottoman holdings in Europe and created a large, independent Bulgarian state under Russian protection. Assigned Albanian-populated lands to Serbia, Montenegro, and Bulgaria. Substantially revised at Congress of Berlin (q.v.), after strong opposition from Great Britain and Austria-Hungary.
Uniate Church
Any Eastern Christian church that recognizes the supremacy of the pope but preserves the Eastern Rite. Members of the Albanian Uniate Church are concentrated in Sicily and southern Italy, and are descendants of Orthodox Albanians who fled the Ottoman invasions, particularly after the death of Skanderbeg in 1468.
Warsaw Treaty Organization
Formal name for Warsaw Pact. Political-military alliance founded by the Soviet Union in 1955 as a counterweight to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Albania, an original member, stopped participating in Warsaw Pact activities in 1962 and withdrew in 1968. Members in 1991 included Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union. Before it was formally dissolved in April 1991, the Warsaw Pact served as the Soviet Union's primary mechanism for keeping political and military control over Eastern Europe.
World Bank
Name used to designate a group of four affiliated international institutions that provide advice on long-term finance and policy issues to developing countries: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), the International Development Association (IDA), the International Finance Corporation (IFC), and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA). The IBRD, established in 1945, has the primary purpose of providing loans to developing countries for productive projects. The IDA, a legally separate loan fund administered by the staff of the IBRD, was set up in 1960 to furnish credits to the poorest developing countries on much easier terms than those of conventional IBRD loans. The IFC, founded in 1956, supplements the activities of the IBRD through loans and assistance designed specifically to encourage the growth of productive private enterprises in less developed countries. The president and certain senior officers of the IBRD hold the same positions in the IFC. The MIGA, which began operating in June 1988, insures private foreign investment in developing countries against such non-commercial risks as expropriation, curl strife, and inconvertibility. The four institutions are owned by the governments of the countries that subscribe their capital. To participate in the World Bank group, member states must first belong to the IMF (q.v.).
Young Turks
A Turkish revolutionary nationalist reform party, officially known as the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP), whose leaders led a rebellion against the Ottoman sultan and effectively ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1908 until shortly before World War I.
Yugoslavia
Established in 1918 as the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. The kingdom included the territory of present-day Bosnia and Hercegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Croatia, and Slovenia. Between 1929 and 1945, the country was called the kingdom of Yugoslavia (land of the South Slavs). In 1945 Yugoslavia became a federation of six republics under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito. In 1991 Yugoslavia broke apart because of long-standing internal disputes among its republics and weak central government. The secession of Croatia and Slovenia in mid-1991 led to a bloody war between Serbia and Croatia. In the fall of 1991, Bosnia and Hercegovina and Macedonia also seceded from the federation, leaving Serbia (with its provinces, Kosovo and Vojvodina) and Montenegro as the constituent parts of the federation. Under the leadership of President Slobodan Milosevic, however, Serbia retained substantial territorial claims in Bosnia and Hercegovina and Croatia at the beginning of 1992.





CITATION: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. The Country Studies Series. Published 1988-1999.

Please note: This text comes from the Country Studies Program, formerly the Army Area Handbook Program. The Country Studies Series presents a description and analysis of the historical setting and the social, economic, political, and national security systems and institutions of countries throughout the world.


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