World Languages: Languages index
 Home
 Languages
   Most spoken
   By country
 People
  African
   Asian
   North American
   Pacific
   South American
 About
 Contribute
 Rainforests
   Mission
   Introduction
   Characteristics
   Biodiversity
   The Canopy
   Forest Floor
   Forest Waters
   Indigenous People
   Deforestation
   Consequences
   Saving Rainforests
   Country Profiles
   Works Cited
 Deforestation Stats
 Pictures
 Books
 Links
 Site Map
 Mongabay Sites
   Animal Photos
   Biodiversity
   Travel Tips
   Tropical Fish
 Contact


Ligurian language resources



Ligurian is spoken on a daily basis in: Italy Ligurian--> --> --> -->

Additional background on Ligurian
For the Romance language, see Ligurian language (Romance).
The Ligurian language was spoken in pre-Roman times and into the Roman era by an ancient people of north-western Italy and south-eastern France known as the Ligures. Very little is known about this language (mainly place names and personal names remain) which is generally believed to have been Indo-European; it appears to have adopted significantly from other Indo-European languages, primarily Celtic (Gaulish) and Italic (Latin).

Xavier Delamarre argues that Ligurian was a Celtic language, similar to but not the same as Gaulish. His argument hinges on two points: firstly, the Ligurian place-name Genua (modern Genoa, located near a river mouth) is claimed by Delamarre to derive from PIE *genu-, "chin(bone)". Many Indo-European languages use 'mouth' to mean the part of a river which meets the sea or a lake, but it is only in Goidelic that PIE *genu- means 'mouth'. Besides Genua, which is considered Ligurian (Delamarre 2003, p. 177), this is found also in Genava (modern Geneva), which may be Gaulish. However, Genua and Genava may well derive from another PIE root with the form *genu-, which means "knee" (so in Pokorny, IEW [1]).

Delamarre's second point is Plutarch's mention (Marius 10, 5-6) that during the Battle of Aquae Sextiae in 102 BC, the Ambrones (who may have been a Celtic tribe) began to shout "Ambrones!" as their battle-cry; the Ligurian troops fighting for the Romans, on hearing this cry, found that it was identical to an ancient name in their country which the Ligurians often used when speaking of their descent (outôs kata genos onomazousi Ligues), so they returned the shout, "Ambrones!".

Delamarre points out a risk of circular logic - if it is believed that the Ligurians are non-Celtic, and if many place names and tribal names that classical authors state are Ligurian seem to be Celtic, it is incorrect to discard all the Celtic ones when collecting Ligurian words and to use this edited corpus to demonstrate that Ligurian is non-Celtic or non-Indo-European.

Strabo on the other hand states "As for the Alps... Many tribes (éthnê) occupy these mountains, all Celtic (Keltikà) except the Ligurians; but while these Ligurians belong to a different people (hetero-ethneis), still they are similar to the Celts in their modes of life (bíois)."

The Ligurian-Celtic question is also discussed by Barruol (1999).

Herodotus (5.9) wrote that sigunnai meant 'hucksters, peddlers' among the Ligurians who lived above Massilia.




Ligurian


What are the most spoken languages on earth?

All data is derived from UNESCO.





Home
About
Contribute
Contact

Languages
  • Most spoken
  • By country
  • People
  • African
  • Asian
  • North American
  • Pacific
  • South American

    Rainforests
  • Mission
  • Introduction
  • Characteristics
  • Biodiversity
  • The Canopy
  • Forest Floor
  • Forest Waters
  • Indigenous People
  • Deforestation
  • Consequences
  • Saving Rainforests
  • Country Profiles
  • Works Cited
  • Deforestation Stats

    Pictures
    Books
    For kids
    Tropical fish




  • what's new | tropical fish | help support the site | search | about | contact

    Copyright Rhett Butler 2005-2013