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KazakhInformation about the Kazakh
The word Kazakh was included in a Turkish-Arabian dictionary of the 13th century AD. The meaning of this word was given as "independent" or "free." The true meaning of the word is a matter of debate: some say it is related to "Ak Kaz", which means "white swan." Other theories exist as well.
Every Kazakh man is in one of three Zhüz (???), 'Junior zhuz, Middle Zhuz & Higher Zhuz. There are also tribes in every zhuz.
Kazakh culture began to develop in the 13th century. Kazakh culture is largely influenced by nomadic lifestyle and Islam however, Orthodox Christianity and Shamanism have also contributed.
The Kazakh language is a member of the Turkic language family, as are Uzbek, Kyrgyz, Tatar, Uighur, Turkish, Azeri, Turkmen, and many other living and historical languages spoken in Eastern Europe, Central Asia, Western China, and Siberia.
Kazakh is a member of the so-called Kipchak subgroup of the Turkic family, as for example is Qaraqalpaq. Kazakh is characterized, in distinction to other Turkic languages, by the presence of /s/ in place of reconstructed proto-Turkic */š/ and /š/ in place of */ç/; furthermore, Kazakh has /j/ (alveodental affricate) where other Turkic languages have /y/ (glide). These are just some of the many phonological differences between Kazakh and other Turkic languages.
Kazakh, like most Turkic languages, arguably lacks phonemic vowel length, and as such there is no distinction between long and short vowels.
Before 1917, Kazakh was written in the Arabic alphabet. Between 1917 and 1926 it was written with a modified version of the Latin alphabet similar to that used for Republican Turkish. Since 1926 it has been written in a variant of the Cyrillic script with characters beyond what is used for Russian to represent phonemes not present in Russian. Today there are many resources, espcially online, written in the Roman alphabet, but there is no standardised orthography.
Kazakh is one of the principal languages spoken in Kazakhstan, along with Russian. It is also spoken in the Ili region of the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China, where the Arabic script is still used, and parts of Mongolia.
Traditionally, Kazakhs tracked their tribal roots. Every Kazakh was supposed to know his or her tribe and all grandparents of at least 7 generations. Kazakhs were not allowed to marry if they had a common predecessor within 7 generations. When a man and a woman marry, their children usually become members of the husband's tribe. Inter-tribe marriages were encouraged.
In modern Kazakhstan, tribalism is officially prohibited, practically almost negligible, and definitely fading away in business and government life. However, it still exists and sometimes plays a subtle role as an important component of the Kazakh culture. It is common for Kazakhs to ask which tribe they belong to when they meet each other. There is no hostility between tribes. Kazakhs, regardless of their tribal origin, consider themselves one nation.
Tribalism played a much greater role during Soviet times, especially when the head of Kazakhstan's Communist Party was D.A. Kunaev. Unfortunately, tribal origin was a hidden factor in work and social life.
Kazakhs in China
The Kazakhs also form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China.
There is one Kazakh autonomous prefecture in the People's Republic of China: the Illi Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region.
Kazakhs in Russia
Pockets of Kazakhs can be found in the Oblasts bordering Kazakhstan.
The above includes excerpts from Wikipedia.org, the free encyclopedia:
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