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The military government of General Tito Lutwa Okello
from July 1985 to January 1986 with no explicit policy
natural goal of self-preservation--the motive for their
coup. To stiffen the flagging efforts of his army against
NRA, Okello invited former soldiers of Amin's army to
Uganda from the Sudanese refugee camps and participate in
civil war on the government side. As mercenaries fresh to
scene, these units fought well, but they were equally
in looting and did not discriminate between supporters and
enemies of the government. The reintroduction of Amin's
cohorts was poor international public relations for the
government and helped create a new tolerance of Museveni.
In 1986 a cease-fire initiative from Kenya was welcomed
Okello, who could hardly expect to govern the entire
only war-weary and disillusioned Acholi troops to back
Negotiations dragged on, but with Okello and the remnants
UNLA army thoroughly discouraged, Museveni had only to
the regime to disintegrate. In January 1986, welcomed
enthusiastically by the local civilian population,
against Kampala. Okello and his soldiers fled northward to
ethnic base in Acholi. Yoweri Museveni formally claimed
presidency on January 29, 1986. Immense problems of
reconstruction awaited the new regime.
* * *
The best general introductions to Uganda in the
and colonial periods are: S. Karugire's A Political
Ugandaand J. Jørgensen's Uganda: A Modern
the place of Uganda in the larger context of East African
African history, see B. Davidson's A History of East
Central Africa to the Late 19th Century; Zamani: A
of East African History, edited by B. Ogot and J.
the relevant chapters in History of East Africa,
by Oxford University, 3 volumes, and The Cambridge
Africa, 8 volumes.
More specialized treatment of Uganda issues can be
T. Sathyamurthy's The Political Development of Uganda,
1986; D. Rothchild and M. Rogin's "Uganda" in G.
National Unity and Regionalism in Eight African
Apter's The Political Kingdom in Uganda, F.
Religion and Politics in Uganda, 1952-1962; N.
The Shrinking Political Arena; and C. Gertzel's
and Locality in Northern Uganda.
The destructive period of Amin in the 1970s produced a
of studies, among them D. Martin's General Amin; H.
Kyemba's A State of Blood, A. Mazrui's Soldiers
Kinsmen in Uganda; M. Twaddle's Expulsion of a
Minority, G.I. Smith's Ghosts of Kampala; and
International Commission of Jurists' Uganda and Human
Sources for Uganda since the fall of Amin are T.
M. Honey's War in Uganda; H. Hansen and M.
Uganda Now; P. Wiebe and C. Dodge's Beyond
K. Rupesinghe's Conflict Resolution in Uganda; and
Minority Rights Group's Uganda and Sudan--North and
(For further information and complete citations,
Data as of December 1990