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Turkey Historical and Political Profile

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Turkey Index

  • Turkey-The Armed Forces Coup and Interim Rule, 1960-61 Multiparty Politics, 1946-60
  • Turkey-Military Interlude Military Intervention and the Return to Civilian Rule
  • Turkey-Pontus and Taurus Mountains
  • Turkey-Penal System Individual Rights
  • Turkey-Middle Eastern Conflicts External Security Concerns
  • Turkey-Construction
  • Turkey-Services
  • Turkey-Narcotics Trafficking Incidence of Crime
  • Turkey-World War II Turkey after Atatürk
  • Turkey-Provincial and Local Government Judiciary
  • Turkey-National Police Police System
  • Turkey-Military
  • Turkey-Great Seljuks Turkish Origins
  • Turkey-The Status of Women Gender Relations
  • Turkey-Politics and Elections in the 1970s
  • Turkey-Social Democratic Populist Party
  • Turkey-Economic Development Growth and Structure of the Economy
  • Turkey-World War I The Young Turks
  • Turkey-Introduction
  • Turkey-Radio and Television Newspapers and Periodicals
  • Turkey-Iran Syria
  • Turkey-Society
  • Turkey-Dissolution of the Soviet Union Foreign Relations
  • Turkey-Land Use Irrigation
  • Turkey-Forestry and Fisheries Livestock
  • Turkey-Chapter 4 - Government and Politics
  • Turkey-Islamists Armenian Terrorism
  • Turkey-Outlook
  • Turkey-Regional Economic Integration
  • Turkey-Army
  • Turkey-The Extended Family Marriage
  • Turkey-Health and Welfare
  • Turkey-Cropping Patterns and Production Land Tenure
  • Turkey-Armenians and Kurds Phrygians and Lydians
  • Turkey-Foreign Policy Atatürk's Reforms
  • Turkey-President, Council of Ministers, and Prime Minister National Assembly
  • Turkey-Village Life Towns
  • Turkey-Eastern Highlands
  • Turkey-Foreign Economic Relations
  • Turkey-Tourism
  • Turkey-Politics and the Return to Civilian Rule
  • Turkey-War of Independence Nationalist Movement
  • Turkey-Preface
  • Turkey-Islam
  • Turkey-Anatolian Villages
  • Turkey-Greeks
  • Turkey-Rome and the Byzantine Empire
  • Turkey-The Crusades Sultanate of Rum
  • Turkey-Energy
  • Turkey-Terrorism of the Left Kurdish Separatists
  • Turkey-Foreword
  • Turkey-Welfare Party
  • Turkey-External Threats and Internal Transformations Köprülü Era
  • Turkey-The United States
  • Turkey-Hittites Ancient Anatolia
  • Turkey-The Ottoman Empire
  • Turkey-Provisions of the 1982 Constitution The Constitutional System
  • Turkey-The Individual, the Family, and Gender Relations
  • Turkey-Villages in the South and East
  • Turkey-Chapter 1 - Historical Setting
  • Turkey-Geology External Boundaries
  • Turkey-Urban Life The Changing National Elite
  • Turkey-Budget Development Planning
  • Turkey-Chapter 3 - The Economy
  • Turkey-Climate
  • Turkey-Population
  • Turkey-Aegean Region
  • Turkey-Turkey's Participation in NATO
  • Turkey-Armed Forces
  • Turkey-Migration Population Density, Distribution, and Settlement
  • Turkey-Military Cooperation with the United States
  • Turkey-Uniforms, Ranks, and Insignia
  • Turkey-Greece and Cyprus The Balkans
  • Turkey-Acknowledgments
  • Turkey-Education
  • Turkey-Secularist Policies The Alevi
  • Turkey-Country
  • Turkey-Geography
  • Turkey-Mass Media
  • Turkey-Minorities
  • Turkey-European Union The Middle East
  • Turkey-Early Development
  • Turkey-Agricultural Policy Agriculture
  • Turkey-Liberal Interlude Role of Government in the Economy
  • Turkey-National Security
  • Turkey-Industrial Policy Industry
  • Turkey-Political Developments since the 1980 Coup
  • Turkey-Politics and the Military
  • Turkey
  • Turkey-Selim I and S�leyman the Magnificent Ottoman Institutions
  • Turkey-Chapter 2 - The Society and Its Environment
  • Turkey-Geography
  • Turkey-Electoral System
  • Turkey-Government
  • Turkey-Navy Air Force
  • Turkey
  • Turkey-Chapter 5 - National Security
  • Turkey-Historical Role of the Armed Forces
  • Turkey-Conditions of Service Education and Training
  • Turkey-Armenians Greeks
  • Turkey-Government and Politics
  • Turkey-Transportation and Telecommunications
  • Turkey-Dönme Peoples from the Caucasus
  • Turkey
  • Turkey-Conflict and Diplomacy: Cyprus and Beyond
  • Turkey-Economic Stabilization and Prospects for the 1990s
  • Turkey-Manufacturing Mineral Resources
  • Turkey-Transportation and Telecommunications Banking and Finance
  • Turkey-Country Profile
  • Turkey-Turkey
  • Turkey-Human Resources and Trade Unions
  • Turkey-Structure of the Economy
  • Turkey-Economic Performance in the Early 1990s Reforms under Özal
  • Turkey-Non-Muslim Minorities
  • Turkey-Structure of Society
  • Turkey-Plans for Partitioning Turkey Atatürk and the Turkish Nation
  • Turkey-Intelligence Services Gendarmerie
  • Turkey-Sufism and Folk Islam
  • Turkey-Arabs Kurds
  • Turkey-State Economic Enterprises and Privatization Etatism
  • Turkey-Balance of Payments Foreign Trade
  • Turkey-Sources and Quality of Personnel Defense Spending
  • Turkey-Challenges to Public Order The Economy: An Unresolved Issue
  • Turkey-Religious Interests
  • Turkey-Table A - Chronology of Major Kemalist Reforms
  • Turkey-Crisis in Turkish Democracy
  • Turkey-Politics and Foreign Relations in the 1960s
  • Turkey-Domestic Arms Industry
  • Turkey-Internal Security Concerns
  • Turkey-Turks Linguistic and Ethnic Groups
  • Turkey-Jews
  • Turkey-Religious Life
  • Turkey-Political Parties
  • Turkey-Civil Service
  • Turkey-Political Dynamics
  • Turkey-Landform Regions
  • Turkey-Retreat from Secularism
  • Turkey
  • Turkey-Government Population Policies
  • Turkey-Language Reform: From Ottoman to Turkish
  • Turkey-Economy
  • BackgroundModern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the Anatolian remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later honored with the title Ataturk or "Father of the Turks." Under his authoritarian leadership, the country adopted wide-ranging social, legal, and political reforms. After a period of one-party rule, an experiment with multi-party politics led to the 1950 election victory of the opposition Democratic Party and the peaceful transfer of power. Since then, Turkish political parties have multiplied, but democracy has been fractured by periods of instability and intermittent military coups (1960, 1971, 1980), which in each case eventually resulted in a return of political power to civilians. In 1997, the military again helped engineer the ouster - popularly dubbed a "post-modern coup" - of the then Islamic-oriented government. Turkey intervened militarily on Cyprus in 1974 to prevent a Greek takeover of the island and has since acted as patron state to the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus," which only Turkey recognizes. A separatist insurgency begun in 1984 by the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) - now known as the People's Congress of Kurdistan or Kongra-Gel (KGK) - has dominated the Turkish military's attention and claimed more than 30,000 lives. After the capture of the group's leader in 1999, the insurgents largely withdrew from Turkey mainly to northern Iraq. In 2004, KGK announced an end to its ceasefire and attacks attributed to the KGK increased. Turkey joined the UN in 1945 and in 1952 it became a member of NATO; it holds a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council from 2009-10. In 1964, Turkey became an associate member of the European Community. Over the past decade, it has undertaken many reforms to strengthen its democracy and economy; it began accession membership talks with the European Union in 2005.
    LocationSoutheastern Europe and Southwestern Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria
    Area(sq km)total: 783,562 sq km
    land: 769,632 sq km
    water: 13,930 sq km
    Geographic coordinates39 00 N, 35 00 E
    Land boundaries(km)total: 2,648 km
    border countries: Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km, Georgia 252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 352 km, Syria 822 km

    Coastline(km)7,200 km

    Climatetemperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior

    Elevation extremes(m)lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
    highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166 m
    Natural resourcescoal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower
    Land use(%)arable land: 29.81%
    permanent crops: 3.39%
    other: 66.8% (2005)

    Irrigated land(sq km)52,150 sq km (2003)
    Total renewable water resources(cu km)234 cu km (2003)
    Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)total: 39.78 cu km/yr (15%/11%/74%)
    per capita: 544 cu m/yr (2001)
    Natural hazardssevere earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van
    Environment - current issueswater pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
    Geography - notestrategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas; Mount Ararat, the legendary landing place of Noah's ark, is in the far eastern portion of the country
    Population76,805,524 (July 2009 est.)
    Age structure(%)0-14 years: 27.2% (male 10,701,631/female 10,223,260)
    15-64 years: 66.7% (male 25,896,326/female 25,327,403)
    65 years and over: 6.1% (male 2,130,360/female 2,526,544) (2009 est.)
    Median age(years)total: 27.7 years
    male: 27.4 years
    female: 28.1 years (2009 est.)
    Population growth rate(%)1.312% (2009 est.)
    Birth rate(births/1,000 population)18.66 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
    Death rate(deaths/1,000 population)6.1 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

    Net migration rate(migrant(s)/1,000 population)0.56 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
    Urbanization(%)urban population: 69% of total population (2008)
    rate of urbanization: 1.9% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
    Sex ratio(male(s)/female)at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
    Infant mortality rate(deaths/1,000 live births)total: 25.78 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 26.84 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 24.67 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

    Life expectancy at birth(years)total population: 71.96 years
    male: 70.12 years
    female: 73.89 years (2009 est.)

    Total fertility rate(children born/woman)2.21 children born/woman (2009 est.)
    Nationalitynoun: Turk(s)
    adjective: Turkish
    Ethnic groups(%)Turkish 70-75%, Kurdish 18%, other minorities 7-12% (2008 est.)

    Religions(%)Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)
    Languages(%)Turkish (official), Kurdish, other minority languages

    Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Turkey
    conventional short form: Turkey
    local long form: Turkiye Cumhuriyeti
    local short form: Turkiye
    Government typerepublican parliamentary democracy
    Capitalname: Ankara
    geographic coordinates: 39 56 N, 32 52 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    Administrative divisions81 provinces (iller, singular - ili); Adana, Adiyaman, Afyonkarahisar, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Ardahan, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bartin, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Duzce, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Igdir, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir (Smyrna), Kahramanmaras, Karabuk, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kilis, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mersin (Icel), Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Osmaniye, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanliurfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon (Trebizond), Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yalova, Yozgat, Zonguldak
    Constitution7 November 1982; amended 17 May 1987, 1995, 2001, and 2007; note - amendment passed by referendum concerning presidential elections on 21 October 2007

    Legal systemcivil law system derived from various European continental legal systems; note - member of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR), although Turkey claims limited derogations on the ratified European Convention on Human Rights; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

    Suffrage18 years of age; universal
    Executive branchchief of state: President Abdullah GUL (since 28 August 2007)
    head of government: Prime Minister Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (since 14 March 2003); Deputy Prime Minister Cemil CICEK (since 29 August 2007); Deputy Prime Minister Ali BABACAN (since 1 May 2009); Deputy Prime Minister Bulent ARINC (since 1 May 2009)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister
    elections: president elected directly for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); prime minister appointed by the president from among members of parliament
    election results: on 28 August 2007 the National Assembly elected Abdullah GUL president on the third ballot; National Assembly vote - 339
    note: in October 2007 Turkish voters approved a referendum package of constitutional amendments including a provision for direct presidential elections
    Legislative branchunicameral Grand National Assembly of Turkey or Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi (550 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
    elections: last held on 22 July 2007 (next to be held in November 2012)
    election results: percent of vote by party - AKP 46.7%, CHP 20.8%, MHP 14.3%, independents 5.2%, and other 13.0%; seats by party - AKP 341, CHP 112, MHP 71, independents 26; note - seats by party as of 31 January 2009 - AKP 340, CHP 97, MHP 70, DTP 21, DSP 13, ODP 1, BBP 1, independents 5, vacant 2 (DTP entered parliament as independents; DSP entered parliament on CHP's party list); only parties surpassing the 10% threshold are entitled to parliamentary seats

    Judicial branchConstitutional Court; High Court of Appeals (Yargitay); Council of State (Danistay); Court of Accounts (Sayistay); Military High Court of Appeals; Military High Administrative Court

    Political pressure groups and leadersConfederation of Public Sector Unions or KESK [Sami EVREN]; Confederation of Revolutionary Workers Unions or DISK [Suleyman CELEBI]; Independent Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or MUSIAD [Omer Cihad VARDAN]; Moral Rights Workers Union or Hak-Is [Salim USLU]; Turkish Confederation of Employers' Unions or TISK [Tugurl KUDATGOBILIK]; Turkish Confederation of Labor or Turk-Is [Mustafa KUMLU]; Turkish Confederation of Tradesmen and Craftsmen or TESK [Dervis GUNDAY]; Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or TUSIAD [Arzuhan Dogan YALCINDAG]; Turkish Union of Chambers of Commerce and Commodity Exchanges or TOBB [M. Rifat HISARCIKLIOGLU]
    International organization participationADB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CE, CERN (observer), EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EU (applicant), FAO, G-20, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURCAT, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SECI, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    Flag descriptionred with a vertical white crescent (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening

    Economy - overviewTurkey's dynamic economy is a complex mix of modern industry and commerce along with a traditional agriculture sector that still accounts for about 30% of employment. It has a strong and rapidly growing private sector, yet the state remains a major participant in basic industry, banking, transport, and communication. The largest industrial sector is textiles and clothing, which accounts for one-third of industrial employment; it faces stiff competition in international markets with the end of the global quota system. However, other sectors, notably the automotive and electronics industries, are rising in importance within Turkey's export mix. Real GDP growth has exceeded 6% in many years, but this strong expansion has been interrupted by sharp declines in output in 1994, 1999, and 2001. Due to global contractions, annual growth is estimated to have fallen to 1.1% in 2008. Inflation fell to 7.7% in 2005 - a 30-year low - but climbed to over 10% in 2008. Despite the strong economic gains from 2002-07, which were largely due to renewed investor interest in emerging markets, IMF backing, and tighter fiscal policy, the economy is still burdened by a high current account deficit and high external debt. Further economic and judicial reforms and prospective EU membership are expected to boost foreign direct investment. The stock value of FDI stood at nearly $130 billion at year-end 2008. Privatization sales are currently approaching $21 billion. Oil began to flow through the Baku-Tblisi-Ceyhan pipeline in May 2006, marking a major milestone that will bring up to 1 million barrels per day from the Caspian to market. In 2007 and 2008, Turkish financial markets weathered significant domestic political turmoil, including turbulence sparked by controversy over the selection of former Foreign Minister Abdullah GUL as Turkey's 11th president and the possible closure of the Justice and Development Party (AKP). Economic fundamentals are sound, marked by moderate economic growth and foreign direct investment. Nevertheless, the Turkish economy may be faced with more negative economic indicators in 2009 as a result of the global economic slowdown. In addition, Turkey's high current account deficit leaves the economy vulnerable to destabilizing shifts in investor confidence.
    GDP (purchasing power parity)$903.9 billion (2008 est.)
    $895.8 billion (2007 est.)
    $855.6 billion (2006 est.)
    note: data are in 2008 US dollars
    GDP (official exchange rate)$730 billion (2008 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate(%)0.9% (2008 est.)
    4.7% (2007 est.)
    6.9% (2006 est.)
    GDP - per capita (PPP)$11,900 (2008 est.)
    $12,000 (2007 est.)
    $11,600 (2006 est.)
    note: data are in 2008 US dollars
    GDP - composition by sector(%)agriculture: 8.8%
    industry: 27.5%
    services: 63.8% (2008 est.)
    Labor force24.06 million
    note: about 1.2 million Turks work abroad (2008 est.)

    Labor force - by occupation(%)agriculture: 29.5%
    industry: 24.7%
    services: 45.8% (2005)
    Unemployment rate(%)11% (2008 est.)
    9.9% (2007 est.)
    note: underemployment amounted to 4% in 2008
    Population below poverty line(%)20% (2002)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share(%)lowest 10%: 1.9%
    highest 10%: 33.2% (2005)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index43.6 (2003)
    Investment (gross fixed)(% of GDP)20.3% of GDP (2008 est.)
    Budgetrevenues: $160.5 billion
    expenditures: $173.6 billion (2008 est.)
    Inflation rate (consumer prices)(%)10.4% (2008 est.)
    8.7% (2007 est.)

    Stock of money$53.25 billion (31 December 2008)
    $63.88 billion (31 December 2007)
    Stock of quasi money$248.4 billion (31 December 2008)
    $252.1 billion (31 December 2007)
    Stock of domestic credit$326.4 billion (31 December 2008)
    $355 billion (31 December 2007)
    Market value of publicly traded shares$117.9 billion (31 December 2008)
    $286.6 billion (31 December 2007)
    $162.4 billion (31 December 2006)
    Economic aid - recipientODA, $464 million (2005)

    Public debt(% of GDP)40% of GDP (2008 est.)
    74.3% of GDP (2004 est.)
    Agriculture - productstobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, hazelnuts, pulse, citrus; livestock
    Industriestextiles, food processing, autos, electronics, mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper

    Industrial production growth rate(%)-0.6% (2008 est.)

    Current account balance-$41.69 billion (2008 est.)
    -$37.7 billion (2007 est.)
    Exports$140.7 billion (2008 est.)
    $115.4 billion (2007 est.)

    Exports - commodities(%)apparel, foodstuffs, textiles, metal manufactures, transport equipment
    Exports - partners(%)Germany 9.8%, UK 6.2%, UAE 6%, Italy 5.9%, France 5%, Russia 4.9% (2008)
    Imports$193.9 billion (2008 est.)
    $162 billion (2007 est.)

    Imports - commodities(%)machinery, chemicals, semi-finished goods, fuels, transport equipment
    Imports - partners(%)Russia 15.5%, Germany 9.3%, China 7.8%, US 5.9%, Italy 5.5%, France 4.5%, Iran 4.1% (2008)

    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$73.66 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
    $76.51 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
    Debt - external$278.1 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
    $249.4 billion (31 December 2007)

    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$128.7 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
    $110.5 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$14.8 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
    $10.97 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
    Exchange ratesTurkish liras (TRY) per US dollar - 1.3179 (2008 est.), 1.319 (2007), 1.4286 (2006), 1.3436 (2005), 1.4255 (2004)
    note: on 1 January 2005, the old Turkish lira (TRL) was converted to new Turkish lira (TRY) at a rate of 1,000,000 old to 1 new Turkish lira; on 1 January 2009, the Turkish government dropped the word "new" and the currency is now called simply the Turkish lira

    Currency (code)Turkish lira (TRY); old Turkish lira (TRL) before 1 January 2005

    Telephones - main lines in use17.502 million (2008)
    Telephones - mobile cellular65.824 million (2008)
    Telephone systemgeneral assessment: comprehensive telecommunications network undergoing rapid modernization and expansion especially in mobile-cellular services
    domestic: additional digital exchanges are permitting a rapid increase in subscribers; the construction of a network of technologically advanced intercity trunk lines, using both fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay, is facilitating communication between urban centers; remote areas are reached by a domestic satellite system; the number of subscribers to mobile-cellular telephone service is growing rapidly
    international: country code - 90; international service is provided by the SEA-ME-WE-3 submarine cable and by submarine fiber-optic cables in the Mediterranean and Black Seas that link Turkey with Italy, Greece, Israel, Bulgaria, Romania, and Russia; satellite earth stations - 12 Intelsat; mobile satellite terminals - 328 in the Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems (2002)
    Internet country code.tr
    Internet users24.483 million (2008)
    Airports102 (2009)
    Pipelines(km)gas 7,555 km; oil 3,636 km (2008)
    Roadways(km)total: 426,951 km (includes 1,987 km of expressways) (2006)

    Ports and terminalsAliaga, Diliskelesi, Izmir, Kocaeli (Izmit), Mercin Limani, Nemrut Limani
    Military branchesTurkish Armed Forces (TSK): Turkish Land Forces (Turk Kara Kuvvetleri), Turkish Naval Forces (Turk Deniz Kuvvetleri; includes naval air and naval infantry), Turkish Air Force (Turk Hava Kuvvetleri) (2009)
    Military service age and obligation(years of age)20 years of age (2004)
    Manpower available for military servicemales age 16-49: 20,213,205
    females age 16-49: 19,432,688 (2008 est.)
    Manpower fit for military servicemales age 16-49: 17,223,506
    females age 16-49: 16,995,299 (2009 est.)
    Manpower reaching militarily significant age annuallymale: 692,592
    female: 663,689 (2009 est.)
    Military expenditures(% of GDP)5.3% of GDP (2005 est.)
    Military - notea "National Security Policy Document" adopted in October 2005 increases the Turkish Armed Forces (TSK) role in internal security, augmenting the General Directorate of Security and Gendarmerie General Command (Jandarma); the TSK leadership continues to play a key role in politics and considers itself guardian of Turkey's secular state; in April 2007, it warned the ruling party about any pro-Islamic appointments; despite on-going negotiations on EU accession since October 2005, progress has been limited in establishing required civilian supremacy over the military; primary domestic threats are listed as fundamentalism (with the definition in some dispute with the civilian government), separatism (the Kurdish problem), and the extreme left wing; Ankara strongly opposed establishment of an autonomous Kurdish region; an overhaul of the Turkish Land Forces Command (TLFC) taking place under the "Force 2014" program is to produce 20-30% smaller, more highly trained forces characterized by greater mobility and firepower and capable of joint and combined operations; the TLFC has taken on increasing international peacekeeping responsibilities, and took charge of a NATO International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) command in Afghanistan in April 2007; the Turkish Navy is a regional naval power that wants to develop the capability to project power beyond Turkey's coastal waters; the Navy is heavily involved in NATO, multinational, and UN operations; its roles include control of territorial waters and security for sea lines of communications; the Turkish Air Force adopted an "Aerospace and Missile Defense Concept" in 2002 and has initiated project work on an integrated missile defense system; Air Force priorities include attaining a modern deployable, survivable, and sustainable force structure, and establishing a sustainable command and control system (2008)
    Disputes - internationalcomplex maritime, air, and territorial disputes with Greece in the Aegean Sea; status of north Cyprus question remains; Syria and Iraq protest Turkish hydrological projects to control upper Euphrates waters; Turkey has expressed concern over the status of Kurds in Iraq; border with Armenia remains closed over Nagorno-Karabakh

    Refugees and internally displaced personsIDPs: 1-1.2 million (fighting 1984-99 between Kurdish PKK and Turkish military; most IDPs in southeastern provinces) (2007)
    Electricity - production(kWh)181.9 billion kWh (2007 est.)
    Electricity - production by source(%)fossil fuel: 79.3%
    hydro: 20.4%
    nuclear: 0%
    other: 0.3% (2001)
    Electricity - consumption(kWh)153.7 billion kWh (2007 est.)
    Electricity - exports(kWh)1.063 billion kWh (2008 est.)
    Electricity - imports(kWh)790 million kWh (2008 est.)
    Oil - production(bbl/day)46,120 bbl/day (2008 est.)
    Oil - consumption(bbl/day)675,500 bbl/day (2008 est.)
    Oil - exports(bbl/day)141,700 bbl/day (2008 est.)
    Oil - imports(bbl/day)783,800 bbl/day (2008 est.)
    Oil - proved reserves(bbl)300 million bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
    Natural gas - production(cu m)1.013 billion cu m (2008 est.)
    Natural gas - consumption(cu m)37.18 billion cu m (2008 est.)
    Natural gas - exports(cu m)435 million cu m (2008)
    Natural gas - proved reserves(cu m)8.495 billion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate(%)less than 0.1%; note - no country specific models provided (2001 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDSNA (2007 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - deathsNA
    Literacy(%)definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 87.4%
    male: 95.3%
    female: 79.6% (2004 est.)

    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)(years)total: 11 years
    male: 12 years
    female: 11 years (2006)
    Education expenditures(% of GDP)4% of GDP (2004)

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