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Tajikistan Historical and Political Profile

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Tajikistan Index

  • Tajikistan-Population Characteristics
  • Tajikistan-Agriculture
  • Tajikistan-Religion
  • Tajikistan -Chapter 3 - Tajikistan
  • Tajikistan-Political Parties
  • Tajikistan-Transportation and Telecommunications
  • Tajikistan-Ethnic Groups
  • Tajikistan-Foreign Relations
  • Tajikistan-Internal Security
  • Tajikistan-Telecommunications
  • Tajikistan-Urbanization
  • Tajikistan-Creation of Tajikistan
  • Tajikistan-Acknowledgments
  • Tajikistan-Impact of the Civil War
  • Tajikistan-Other Religions
  • Tajikistan-Health
  • Tajikistan-Foreword
  • Tajikistan-Economic Conditions in the Early 1990s
  • Tajikistan-Collectivization
  • Tajikistan-Population
  • Tajikistan-Government Structure
  • Tajikistan-Culture and the Arts
  • Tajikistan-Forces of Nationalism
  • Tajikistan-Labor
  • Tajikistan-Education
  • Tajikistan-The Postwar Period
  • Tajikistan-Cultural Institutions
  • Tajikistan-Government and Politics
  • Tajikistan-Foreign Economic Relations
  • Tajikistan-Geography Country
  • Tajikistan-Health Conditions
  • Tajikistan-Climate
  • Tajikistan-The Media
  • Tajikistan-Education in the 1980s and 1990s
  • Tajikistan-The Revolutionary Era
  • Tajikistan-Preface
  • Tajikistan-Historical Background
  • Tajikistan-Standard of Living
  • Tajikistan-Human Rights
  • Tajikistan-The Armed Forces
  • Tajikistan-The Economy
  • Tajikistan-Energy
  • Tajikistan-Dimensions and Borders
  • Tajikistan-Emigration
  • Tajikistan-Transportation and Telecommunications
  • Tajikistan
  • Tajikistan-Higher Education and Research
  • Tajikistan-National Security
  • Tajikistan-Economy
  • Tajikistan-Government and Politics
  • Tajikistan-National Security
  • Tajikistan
  • Tajikistan-Physical Environment
  • Tajikistan-Early History
  • Tajikistan-The Russian Conquest
  • Tajikistan-Introduction
  • Tajikistan-Tajikistan
  • Tajikistan-Environmental Problems
  • Tajikistan-Roads
  • Tajikistan-Vocational Education
  • Tajikistan
  • Tajikistan-Topography and Drainage
  • Tajikistan-The Basmachi
  • Tajikistan
  • Tajikistan-The Rural Majority
  • Tajikistan-Islam
  • Tajikistan-Historical Background
  • Tajikistan-The Purges
  • BackgroundThe Tajik people came under Russian rule in the 1860s and 1870s, but Russia's hold on Central Asia weakened following the Revolution of 1917. Bolshevik control of the area was fiercely contested and not fully reestablished until 1925. Much of present-day Sughd province was transferred from the Uzbek SSR to the newly formed Tajik SSR in 1929. Ethnic Uzbeks form a substantial minority in Sughd province. Tajikistan became independent in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union, and experienced a civil war between regional factions from 1992-97. There have been no major security incidents in recent years, although the country remains the poorest in the former Soviet sphere. Attention by the international community since the beginning of the NATO intervention in Afghanistan has brought increased economic development and security assistance, which could create jobs and strengthen stability in the long term. Tajikistan is in the early stages of seeking World Trade Organization membership and has joined NATO's Partnership for Peace.
    LocationCentral Asia, west of China
    Area(sq km)total: 143,100 sq km
    land: 141,510 sq km
    water: 2,590 sq km
    Geographic coordinates39 00 N, 71 00 E
    Land boundaries(km)total: 3,651 km
    border countries: Afghanistan 1,206 km, China 414 km, Kyrgyzstan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,161 km

    Coastline(km)0 km (landlocked)

    Climatemidlatitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains

    Elevation extremes(m)lowest point: Syr Darya (Sirdaryo) 300 m
    highest point: Qullai Ismoili Somoni 7,495 m
    Natural resourceshydropower, some petroleum, uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten, silver, gold
    Land use(%)arable land: 6.52%
    permanent crops: 0.89%
    other: 92.59% (2005)

    Irrigated land(sq km)7,220 sq km (2003)
    Total renewable water resources(cu km)99.7 cu km (1997)
    Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)total: 11.96 cu km/yr (4%/5%/92%)
    per capita: 1,837 cu m/yr (2000)
    Natural hazardsearthquakes; floods
    Environment - current issuesinadequate sanitation facilities; increasing levels of soil salinity; industrial pollution; excessive pesticides
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - notelandlocked; mountainous region dominated by the Trans-Alay Range in the north and the Pamirs in the southeast; highest point, Qullai Ismoili Somoni (formerly Communism Peak), was the tallest mountain in the former USSR
    Population7,349,145 (July 2009 est.)
    Age structure(%)0-14 years: 34.3% (male 1,282,681/female 1,238,607)
    15-64 years: 62.1% (male 2,260,552/female 2,303,034)
    65 years and over: 3.6% (male 112,334/female 151,937) (2009 est.)
    Median age(years)total: 21.9 years
    male: 21.5 years
    female: 22.4 years (2009 est.)
    Population growth rate(%)1.878% (2009 est.)
    Birth rate(births/1,000 population)26.9 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
    Death rate(deaths/1,000 population)6.83 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

    Net migration rate(migrant(s)/1,000 population)-1.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
    Urbanization(%)urban population: 26% of total population (2008)
    rate of urbanization: 1.6% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
    Sex ratio(male(s)/female)at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
    Infant mortality rate(deaths/1,000 live births)total: 41.03 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 45.9 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 35.91 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

    Life expectancy at birth(years)total population: 65.33 years
    male: 62.29 years
    female: 68.52 years (2009 est.)

    Total fertility rate(children born/woman)2.99 children born/woman (2009 est.)
    Nationalitynoun: Tajikistani(s)
    adjective: Tajikistani
    Ethnic groups(%)Tajik 79.9%, Uzbek 15.3%, Russian 1.1%, Kyrgyz 1.1%, other 2.6% (2000 census)

    Religions(%)Sunni Muslim 85%, Shia Muslim 5%, other 10% (2003 est.)
    Languages(%)Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government and business

    Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Tajikistan
    conventional short form: Tajikistan
    local long form: Jumhurii Tojikiston
    local short form: Tojikiston
    former: Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
    Government typerepublic
    Capitalname: Dushanbe
    geographic coordinates: 38 35 N, 68 48 E
    time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions2 provinces (viloyatho, singular - viloyat) and 1 autonomous province* (viloyati mukhtor); Viloyati Khatlon (Qurghonteppa), Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon* [Gorno-Badakhshan] (Khorugh), Viloyati Sughd (Khujand)
    note: the administrative center name follows in parentheses

    Legal systembased on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

    Suffrage18 years of age; universal
    Executive branchchief of state: President Emomali RAHMON (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly chairman since 19 November 1992)
    head of government: Prime Minister Oqil OQILOV (since 20 January 1999)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Supreme Assembly
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 6 November 2006 (next to be held in November 2013); prime minister appointed by the president
    election results: Emomali RAHMON reelected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMON 79.3%, Olimjon BOBOEV 6.2%, other 14.5%

    Legislative branchbicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli consists of the National Assembly (upper chamber) or Majlisi Milliy (34 seats; 25 members selected by local deputies, 8 appointed by the president; 1 seat reserved for the former president; to serve five-year terms) and the Assembly of Representatives (lower chamber) or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
    elections: National Assembly - last held 25 March 2005 (next to be held in February 2010); Assembly of Representatives 27 February and 13 March 2005 (next to be held in February 2010)
    election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDPT 29, CPT 2, independents 3; Assembly of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDPT 74.9%, CPT 13.6%, Islamic Revival Party 8.9%, other 2.5%; seats by party - PDPT 51, CPT 5, Islamic Revival Party 2, independents 5

    Judicial branchSupreme Court (judges are appointed by the president)

    Political pressure groups and leaderssplinter parties recognized by the government but not by the base of the party: Democratic Party or DPT [Masud SOBIROV] (splintered from ISKANDAROV's DPT); Socialist Party or SPT [Abduhalim GHAFFOROV] (splintered from NARZIEV's SPT)
    unregistered political parties: Agrarian Party [Hikmatullo NASREDDINOV]; Progressive Party [Sulton QUVVATOV]; Unity Party [Hikmatullo SAIDOV]
    International organization participationADB, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
    Flag descriptionthree horizontal stripes of red (top), a wider stripe of white, and green; a gold crown surmounted by seven gold, five-pointed stars is located in the center of the white stripe

    Economy - overviewTajikistan has one of the lowest per capita GDPs among the 15 former Soviet republics. Because of a lack of employment opportunities in Tajikistan, nearly half of the labor force works abroad, primarily in Russia, supporting families in Tajikistan through remittances. The exact number of labor migrants is unknown, but estimated at around 1 million. Less than 7% of the land area is arable. Cotton is the most important crop, but this sector is burdened with debt and obsolete infrastructure. Mineral resources include silver, gold, uranium, and tungsten. Industry consists only of a large aluminum plant, hydropower facilities, and small obsolete factories mostly in light industry and food processing. The civil war (1992-97) severely damaged the already weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production. Tajikistan's economic situation remains fragile due to uneven implementation of structural reforms, corruption, weak governance, widespread unemployment, seasonal power shortages, and the external debt burden. A debt restructuring agreement was reached with Russia in December 2002 including a $250 million write-off of Tajikistan's $300 million debt. Completion of the Sangtuda I hydropower dam - built with Russian investment - and the Sangtuda II and Rogun dams will add substantially to electricity output. If finished according to Tajik plans, Rogun will be the world's tallest dam. Tajikistan has also received substantial infrastructure development loans from the Chinese government to improve roads and an electricity transmission network. To help increase north-south trade, the US funded a $36 million bridge which opened in August 2007 and links Tajikistan and Afghanistan. While, Tajikistan has experienced steady economic growth since 1997, nearly two-thirds of the population continues to live in poverty. Economic growth reached 10.6% in 2004, but dropped below 8% in 2005-08, as the effects of higher oil prices and then the international financial crisis began to register - mainly in the form of lower prices for key commodities and lower remittances from Tajiks working in Russia, due to the declining economic conditions in that country.
    GDP (purchasing power parity)$13.19 billion (2008 est.)
    $12.22 billion (2007 est.)
    $11.34 billion (2006 est.)
    note: data are in 2008 US dollars
    GDP (official exchange rate)$5.135 billion (2008 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate(%)7.9% (2008 est.)
    7.8% (2007 est.)
    7% (2006 est.)
    GDP - per capita (PPP)$1,800 (2008 est.)
    $1,700 (2007 est.)
    $1,600 (2006 est.)
    note: data are in 2008 US dollars
    GDP - composition by sector(%)agriculture: 22.7%
    industry: 27.1%
    services: 50.2% (2008 est.)
    Labor force2.1 million (2008)

    Labor force - by occupation(%)agriculture: 67.2%
    industry: 7.5%
    services: 25.3% (2000 est.)
    Unemployment rate(%)2.3% (2008 est.)
    2.4% (2007 est.)
    note: official rates; actual unemployment is higher
    Population below poverty line(%)60% (2007 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share(%)lowest 10%: 3.3%
    highest 10%: 25.6% (2007 est.)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index32.6 (2006)
    34.7 (1998)
    Investment (gross fixed)(% of GDP)12% of GDP (2008 est.)
    Budgetrevenues: $996.8 million
    expenditures: $899.6 million (2008 est.)
    Inflation rate (consumer prices)(%)20.5% (2008 est.)
    13.1% (2007 est.)

    Stock of money$NA (31 December 2008)
    $329.2 million (31 December 2007)
    Stock of quasi money$544 million (31 December 2008)
    $350.3 million (31 December 2007)
    Stock of domestic credit$889 million (31 December 2008)
    $NA (31 December 2007)
    Market value of publicly traded shares$NA
    Economic aid - recipient$241.4 million from US (2005)

    Agriculture - productscotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
    Industriesaluminum, zinc, lead; chemicals and fertilizers, cement, vegetable oil, metal-cutting machine tools, refrigerators and freezers

    Industrial production growth rate(%)-4% (2008 est.)

    Current account balance$47.6 million (2008 est.)
    -$495.1 million (2007 est.)
    Exports$1.575 billion (2008 est.)
    $1.557 billion (2007 est.)

    Exports - commodities(%)aluminum, electricity, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles
    Exports - partners(%)Netherlands 36.7%, Turkey 26.5%, Russia 8.6%, Iran 6.6%, China 5.7%, Uzbekistan 5.1% (2008)
    Imports$3.699 billion (2008 est.)
    $3.115 billion (2007 est.)

    Imports - commodities(%)electricity, petroleum products, aluminum oxide, machinery and equipment, foodstuffs
    Imports - partners(%)Russia 32.3%, China 11.9%, Kazakhstan 8.8%, Uzbekistan 4.7% (2008)

    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$195 million (31 December 2008 est.)
    $328 million (31 December 2007 est.)
    Debt - external$1.503 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
    $1.56 billion (31 December 2007 est.)

    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$102 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
    $94.76 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$10.86 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
    $8.022 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
    Exchange ratesTajikistani somoni (TJS) per US dollar - 3.4563 (2008 est.), 3.4418 (2007), 3.3 (2006), 3.1166 (2005), 2.9705 (2004)

    Currency (code)somoni (TJS)

    Telephones - main lines in use360,000 (2008)
    Telephones - mobile cellular3.5 million (2009)
    Telephone systemgeneral assessment: foreign investment in the telephone system has resulted in major improvements
    domestic: the domestic telecommunications network has historically been under funded and poorly maintained; main line availability has not changed significantly since 1998; mobile cellular use, aided by competition among multiple operators, has expanded rapidly; coverage now extends to all major cities and towns
    international: country code - 992; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch in Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth stations - 3 (2 Intelsat and 1 Orbita) (2008)
    Internet country code.tj
    Internet users600,000 (2008)
    Airports26 (2009)
    Pipelines(km)gas 549 km; oil 38 km (2008)
    Roadways(km)total: 27,767 km (2000)

    Military branchesGround Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Mobile Forces (2008)
    Military service age and obligation(years of age)18 years of age for compulsory military service; 2-year conscript service obligation (2007)
    Manpower available for military servicemales age 16-49: 1,897,356
    females age 16-49: 1,911,594 (2008 est.)
    Manpower fit for military servicemales age 16-49: 1,428,218
    females age 16-49: 1,603,779 (2009 est.)
    Manpower reaching militarily significant age annuallymale: 80,819
    female: 78,460 (2009 est.)
    Military expenditures(% of GDP)3.9% of GDP (2005 est.)
    Disputes - internationalin 2006, China and Tajikistan pledged to commence demarcation of the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; talks continue with Uzbekistan to delimit border and remove minefields; disputes in Isfara Valley delay delimitation with Kyrgyzstan

    Trafficking in personscurrent situation: Tajikistan is a source country for women trafficked through Kyrgyzstan and Russia to the UAE, Turkey, and Russia for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation; men are trafficked to Russia and Kazakhstan for the purpose of forced labor, primarily in the construction and agricultural industries; boys and girls are trafficked internally for various purposes, including forced labor and forced begging
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Tajikistan is on the Tier 2 Watch List for its failure to provide evidence of increasing efforts to combat human trafficking, especially efforts to investigate, prosecute, convict, and sentence traffickers; despite evidence of low- and mid-level officials' complicity in trafficking, the government did not punish any public officials for trafficking complicity during 2007; lack of capacity and poor coordination between government institutions remained key obstacles to effective anti-trafficking efforts (2008)
    Electricity - production(kWh)17.3 billion kWh (2007 est.)
    Electricity - production by source(%)fossil fuel: 1.9%
    hydro: 98.1%
    nuclear: 0%
    other: 0% (2001)
    Electricity - consumption(kWh)17.8 billion kWh (2008)
    Electricity - exports(kWh)1 billion kWh (2008 est.)
    Electricity - imports(kWh)4.361 billion kWh (2007 est.)
    Oil - production(bbl/day)238 bbl/day (2008 est.)
    Oil - consumption(bbl/day)36,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
    Oil - exports(bbl/day)348.9 bbl/day
    Oil - imports(bbl/day)10,100 bbl/day (2008)
    Oil - proved reserves(bbl)12 million bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
    Natural gas - production(cu m)15.3 million cu m (2008 est.)
    Natural gas - consumption(cu m)515.3 million cu m (2008 est.)
    Natural gas - exports(cu m)0 cu m (2008)
    Natural gas - proved reserves(cu m)5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate(%)less than 0.3% (2007 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS10,000 (2007 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - deathsfewer than 500 (2007 est.)
    Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne disease: malaria (2009)
    Literacy(%)definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 99.5%
    male: 99.7%
    female: 99.2% (2000 census)

    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)(years)total: 11 years
    male: 12 years
    female: 10 years (2006)
    Education expenditures(% of GDP)3.4% of GDP (2006)

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