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Spain Historical and Political Profile

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Spain Index

  • Spain-Migration
  • Spain-Growth of the PSOE and the 1982 Elections
  • Spain-Chapter 4 - Government and Politics
  • Spain-Government Health and Welfare Programs
  • Spain-Liberal Rule
  • Spain-Economic Ministries
  • Spain-The Civil Guard
  • Spain-Spain and the United States
  • Spain-The 1978 Constitution
  • Spain-Food Processing
  • Spain-Labor Relations in the Franco Era
  • Spain-Size and Growth
  • Spain-Fisheries
  • Spain-The Islands
  • Spain-Regional Parties
  • Spain-External Boundaries and Landform Regions
  • Spain-HISPANIA
  • Spain-ECONOMY
  • Spain-Crops
  • Spain-Spain and France
  • Spain-Government Policies
  • Spain-The Underground Economy
  • Spain-The National Police Corps
  • Spain-National Industrial Institute
  • Spain-Foreign Investment
  • Spain-Trading Partners
  • Spain-Industrial Development INDUSTRY
  • Spain-Rule by Pronunciamiento
  • Spain-Spain and the Soviet Union
  • Spain-Forestry
  • Spain-Health Conditions and Mortality
  • Spain-Spain and Latin America
  • Spain-Radio and Television
  • Spain-The Post-Franco Period, 1975-1980s
  • Spain-The Franco Era, 1939-75
  • Spain-The Gypsies
  • Spain-Charles V and Philip II
  • Spain-Transportation and Communications
  • Spain-Mining
  • Spain-The African War and the Authoritarian Regime of Miguel Primo de Rivera
  • Spain-Primary and Secondary Education
  • Spain-Ferdinand and Isabella THE GOLDEN AGE
  • Spain-Democratic and Social Center
  • Spain-The Andalusians
  • Spain-Chapter 2 - The Society and Its Environment
  • Spain-Other National Parties
  • Spain-Preface
  • Spain-Manufacturing
  • Spain-Introduction
  • Spain-Natural Gas
  • Spain-Regional Variation
  • Spain-POLITICS
  • Spain-Textiles and Footwear
  • Spain-Other Police Forces
  • Spain-Local Government
  • Spain-Drainage
  • Spain-Roman Catholic Church
  • Spain-SPAIN
  • Spain-Spain and the Middle East
  • Spain-Popular Alliance
  • Spain-Spanish Foreign Policy in the Post-Franco Period
  • Spain-Communist Party of Spain
  • Spain-Intelligence Services
  • Spain-The Catalans
  • Spain-Spain in Decline
  • Spain-The Civil War and its Aftermath
  • Spain-Construction
  • Spain-Housing
  • Spain-The Galicians
  • Spain-Political Parties
  • Spain-Lowland Regions
  • Spain-Business
  • Spain-Chapter 5 - National Security
  • Spain-The Enlightenment
  • Spain-Political Developments, 1982-88
  • Spain-Uniforms, Ranks, and Insignia
  • Spain-Automobile Assembly
  • Spain-Agricultural Development
  • Spain-Higher Education
  • Spain-Franco's Political System
  • Spain-Criminal Justice and the Penal System
  • Spain-Labor Relations in the Post-Franco Period
  • Spain-Regional Government
  • Spain-AL ANDALUS
  • Spain-Foreign Policy under Franco
  • Spain-RELIGION
  • Spain-Disenchantment with UCD Leadership
  • Spain-Chapter 3 - The Economy
  • Spain-Army
  • Spain-Navy
  • Spain-Tourism
  • Spain-Historical Role of the Armed Forces
  • Spain-Climate
  • Spain-Chapter 1 - Historical Setting
  • Spain
  • Spain-Spain and the European Community
  • Spain-Regional Concentration
  • Spain
  • Spain-SERVICES
  • Spain-Political Interest Groups
  • Spain-Civil Service
  • Spain-Labor
  • Spain-Foreword
  • Spain-The Military in Political Life
  • Spain-Spain and the European Community
  • Spain
  • Spain-Spanish Legion
  • Spain-Other Mountainous Regions
  • Spain-Threats to Internal Security
  • Spain-Military
  • Spain
  • Spain-The Unemployment Problem
  • Spain-Equipment
  • Spain-IBERIA
  • Spain-Gibraltar, Ceuta, and Melilla
  • Spain
  • Spain
  • Spain-The Police System
  • Spain-Coal
  • Spain-The King, the Prime Minister, and the Council of Ministers
  • Spain-Regional Disparities
  • Spain
  • Spain
  • Spain-The Cortes
  • Spain-Public Safety and Environmental Problems
  • Spain-Shipbuilding
  • Spain-Air Force
  • Spain
  • Spain-The Cadiz Cortes THE LIBERAL ASCENDANCY
  • Spain-Transition to Democracy THE POST-FRANCO ERA
  • Spain-Livestock
  • Spain-Electricity
  • Spain-War of the Spanish Succession
  • Spain
  • Spain
  • Spain-Spain and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
  • Spain-The Basques
  • Spain-Electoral System
  • Spain-Stock Market Exchanges
  • Spain -Country Profile
  • Spain-Opus Dei
  • Spain-Chemical Industry
  • Spain-Banking
  • Spain
  • Spain-The Napoleonic Era
  • BackgroundSpain's powerful world empire of the 16th and 17th centuries ultimately yielded command of the seas to England. Subsequent failure to embrace the mercantile and industrial revolutions caused the country to fall behind Britain, France, and Germany in economic and political power. Spain remained neutral in World Wars I and II but suffered through a devastating civil war (1936-39). A peaceful transition to democracy following the death of dictator Francisco FRANCO in 1975, and rapid economic modernization (Spain joined the EU in 1986) gave Spain a dynamic and rapidly growing economy and made it a global champion of freedom and human rights. The government continues to battle the Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) terrorist organization, but its major focus for the immediate future will be on measures to reverse the severe economic recession that started in mid-2008.
    LocationSouthwestern Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay, Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, and Pyrenees Mountains, southwest of France
    Area(sq km)total: 505,370 sq km
    land: 498,980 sq km
    water: 6,390 sq km
    note: there are two autonomous cities - Ceuta and Melilla - and 17 autonomous communities including Balearic Islands and Canary Islands, and three small Spanish possessions off the coast of Morocco - Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera
    Geographic coordinates40 00 N, 4 00 W
    Land boundaries(km)total: 1,917.8 km
    border countries: Andorra 63.7 km, France 623 km, Gibraltar 1.2 km, Portugal 1,214 km, Morocco (Ceuta) 6.3 km, Morocco (Melilla) 9.6 km

    Coastline(km)4,964 km

    Climatetemperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy and cool along coast

    Elevation extremes(m)lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Pico de Teide (Tenerife) on Canary Islands 3,718 m
    Natural resourcescoal, lignite, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, uranium, tungsten, mercury, pyrites, magnesite, fluorspar, gypsum, sepiolite, kaolin, potash, hydropower, arable land
    Land use(%)arable land: 27.18%
    permanent crops: 9.85%
    other: 62.97% (2005)

    Irrigated land(sq km)37,800 sq km (2003)
    Total renewable water resources(cu km)111.1 cu km (2005)
    Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)total: 37.22 cu km/yr (13%/19%/68%)
    per capita: 864 cu m/yr (2002)
    Natural hazardsperiodic droughts
    Environment - current issuespollution of the Mediterranean Sea from raw sewage and effluents from the offshore production of oil and gas; water quality and quantity nationwide; air pollution; deforestation; desertification
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
    Geography - notestrategic location along approaches to Strait of Gibraltar; Spain controls a number of territories in northern Morocco including the enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, and the islands of Penon de Velez de la Gomera, Penon de Alhucemas, and Islas Chafarinas
    Population40,525,002 (July 2009 est.)
    Age structure(%)0-14 years: 14.5% (male 3,021,822/female 2,842,597)
    15-64 years: 67.4% (male 13,705,107/female 13,601,399)
    65 years and over: 18.1% (male 3,071,394/female 4,282,683) (2009 est.)
    Median age(years)total: 41.1 years
    male: 39.7 years
    female: 42.5 years (2009 est.)
    Population growth rate(%)0.072% (2009 est.)
    Birth rate(births/1,000 population)9.72 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
    Death rate(deaths/1,000 population)9.99 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

    Net migration rate(migrant(s)/1,000 population)0.99 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
    Urbanization(%)urban population: 77% of total population (2008)
    rate of urbanization: 0.9% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
    Sex ratio(male(s)/female)at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
    under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
    Infant mortality rate(deaths/1,000 live births)total: 4.21 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 4.59 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 3.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

    Life expectancy at birth(years)total population: 80.05 years
    male: 76.74 years
    female: 83.57 years (2009 est.)

    Total fertility rate(children born/woman)1.31 children born/woman (2009 est.)
    Nationalitynoun: Spaniard(s)
    adjective: Spanish
    Ethnic groups(%)composite of Mediterranean and Nordic types

    Religions(%)Roman Catholic 94%, other 6%
    Languages(%)Castilian Spanish (official) 74%, Catalan 17%, Galician 7%, Basque 2%, are official regionally

    Country nameconventional long form: Kingdom of Spain
    conventional short form: Spain
    local long form: Reino de Espana
    local short form: Espana
    Government typeparliamentary monarchy
    Capitalname: Madrid
    geographic coordinates: 40 24 N, 3 41 W
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    note: Spain is divided into two time zones including the Canary Islands
    Administrative divisions17 autonomous communities (comunidades autonomas, singular - comunidad autonoma) and 2 autonomous cities* (ciudades autonomas, singular - ciudad autonoma); Andalucia, Aragon, Asturias, Baleares (Balearic Islands), Ceuta*, Canarias (Canary Islands), Cantabria, Castilla-La Mancha, Castilla y Leon, Cataluna (Catalonia), Comunidad Valenciana (Valencian Community), Extremadura, Galicia, La Rioja, Madrid, Melilla*, Murcia, Navarra, Pais Vasco (Basque Country)
    note: the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla plus three small islands of Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera, administered directly by the Spanish central government, are all along the coast of Morocco and are collectively referred to as Places of Sovereignty (Plazas de Soberania)
    Constitutionapproved by legislature 31 October 1978; passed by referendum 6 December 1978; signed by the king 27 December 1978

    Legal systemcivil law system, with regional applications; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

    Suffrage18 years of age; universal
    Executive branchchief of state: King JUAN CARLOS I (since 22 November 1975); Heir Apparent Prince FELIPE, son of the monarch, born 30 January 1968
    head of government: President of the Government (Prime Minister equivalent) Jose Luis Rodriguez ZAPATERO (since 17 April 2004); First Vice President (and Minister of the Presidency) Maria Teresa FERNANDEZ DE LA VEGA Sanz (since 18 April 2004), Second Vice President (and Minister of Economy and Finance) Elena SALGADO Mendez (since 8 April 2009), and Third Vice President (and Minister of Regional Affairs) Manuel CHAVES Gonzalez (since 8 April 2009)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers designated by the president
    note: there is also a Council of State that is the supreme consultative organ of the government, but its recommendations are non-binding
    elections: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually proposed president by the monarch and elected by the National Assembly; election last held on 9 and 11 April 2008 (next to be held in March 2012); vice presidents appointed by the monarch on the proposal of the president
    election results: Jose Luis Rodriguez ZAPATERO reelected President of the Government; percent of National Assembly vote - 46.94%
    Legislative branchbicameral; General Courts or Las Cortes Generales (National Assembly) consists of the Senate or Senado (264 seats as of 2008; 208 members directly elected by popular vote and the other 56 - as of 2008 - appointed by the regional legislatures; to serve four-year terms) and the Congress of Deputies or Congreso de los Diputados (350 seats; each of the 50 electoral provinces fills a minimum of two seats and the North African enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla fill one seat each with members serving a four-year term; the other 248 members are determined by proportional representation based on popular vote on block lists who serve four-year terms)
    elections: Senate - last held on 9 March 2008 (next to be held not later than March 2012); Congress of Deputies - last held on 9 March 2008 (next to be held not later than March 2012)
    election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PP 101, PSOE 88, Entesa Catalona de Progress 12, CiU 4, PNV 2, CC 1, members appointed by regional legislatures 56; Congress of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PSOE 43.6%, PP 40.1%, CiU 3.1%, PNV 1.2%, ERC 1.2%, other 10.8%; seats by party - PSOE 169, PP 154, CiU 10, PNV 6, ERC 3, other 8; note - seats by party in the Congress of Deputies as of 15 December 2009 - PSOE 169, PP 153, CiU 10, PNV 6, ERC 3, other 9

    Judicial branchSupreme Court or Tribunal Supremo

    Political pressure groups and leadersAssociation for Victims of Terrorism or AVT (grassroots organization devoted primarily to opposing ETA terrorist attacks and supporting its victims); Basta Ya (Spanish for "Enough is Enough"; grassroots organization devoted primarily to opposing ETA terrorist attacks and supporting its victims); Nunca Mais (Galician for "Never Again"; formed in response to the oil Tanker Prestige oil spill); Socialist General Union of Workers or UGT and the smaller independent Workers Syndical Union or USO; Trade Union Confederation of Workers' Commissions or CC.OO.
    other: business and landowning interests; Catholic Church; free labor unions (authorized in April 1977); university students
    International organization participationADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, SECI (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    Flag descriptionthree horizontal bands of red (top), yellow (double width), and red with the national coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band; the coat of arms is quartered to display the emblems of the traditional kingdoms of Spain (clockwise from upper left, Castile, Leon, Navarre, and Aragon) while Granada is represented by the stylized pomegranate at the bottom of the shield; the arms are framed by two columns representing the Pillars of Hercules, which are the two promontories (Gibraltar and Ceuta) on either side of the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar; the red scroll across the two columns bears the imperial motto of "Plus Ultra" (further beyond) referring to Spanish lands beyond Europe

    Economy - overviewThe Spanish economy grew every year from 1994 through 2008 before entering a recession that started in the third quarter of 2008. Spain's mixed capitalist economy supports a GDP that on a per capita basis is approaching that of the largest West European economies. The Socialist president, Jose Luis Rodriguez ZAPATERO, in office since 2004, has made mixed progress in carrying out key structural reforms. The economy was greatly affected, especially after Zapatero's second term began in April 2008, by the bursting of the housing bubble and construction boom that had fueled much of the economic growth between 2001 and 2007. The global financial crisis exacerbated the economic downturn. GDP growth in 2008 was 1.2%, well below the 3% or higher growth the country enjoyed from 1997 through 2007. The Spanish banking system is considered solid, thanks in part to conservative oversight by the European Central Bank, and government intervention to rescue banks on the scale seen elsewhere in Europe in 2008 was not necessary. After considerable success since the mid-1990s in reducing unemployment to a 2007 low of 8%, Spain suffered a major spike in unemployment in the last few months of 2008, finishing the year with an unemployment rate over 13%.
    GDP (purchasing power parity)$1.402 trillion (2008 est.)
    $1.39 trillion (2007 est.)
    $1.341 trillion (2006 est.)
    note: data are in 2008 US dollars
    GDP (official exchange rate)$1.602 trillion (2008 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate(%)0.9% (2008 est.)
    3.6% (2007 est.)
    4% (2006 est.)
    GDP - per capita (PPP)$34,600 (2008 est.)
    $34,400 (2007 est.)
    $33,200 (2006 est.)
    note: data are in 2008 US dollars
    GDP - composition by sector(%)agriculture: 3.4%
    industry: 29%
    services: 67.6% (2008 est.)
    Labor force22.85 million (2008 est.)

    Labor force - by occupation(%)agriculture: 4%
    industry: 26.4%
    services: 69.5% (2008 est.)
    Unemployment rate(%)11.3% (2008 est.)
    8.3% (2007 est.)
    Population below poverty line(%)19.8% (2005)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share(%)lowest 10%: 2.6%
    highest 10%: 26.6% (2000)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index32 (2005)
    32.5 (1990)
    Investment (gross fixed)(% of GDP)29.4% of GDP (2008 est.)
    Budgetrevenues: $598.1 billion
    expenditures: $659.1 billion (2008 est.)
    Inflation rate (consumer prices)(%)4.1% (2008 est.)
    2.8% (2007 est.)

    Stock of money$NAnote: see entry for the European Union for money supply in the euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 16 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money and quasi money circulating within their own borders
    Stock of quasi money$NA
    Stock of domestic credit$3.45 trillion (31 December 2008)
    $2.976 trillion (31 December 2007)
    Market value of publicly traded shares$1.132 trillion (31 December 2008)
    $1.8 trillion (31 December 2007)
    $1.323 trillion (31 December 2006)
    Public debt(% of GDP)40.7% of GDP (2008 est.)
    53.2% of GDP (2004 est.)
    Agriculture - productsgrain, vegetables, olives, wine grapes, sugar beets, citrus; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish
    Industriestextiles and apparel (including footwear), food and beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles, machine tools, tourism, clay and refractory products, footwear, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment

    Industrial production growth rate(%)-2.3% (2008 est.)

    Current account balance-$154.1 billion (2008 est.)
    -$145.4 billion (2007 est.)
    Exports$285.9 billion (2008 est.)
    $256.7 billion (2007 est.)

    Exports - commodities(%)machinery, motor vehicles; foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, medicines, other consumer goods
    Exports - partners(%)France 18.4%, Germany 10.6%, Portugal 8.7%, Italy 8%, UK 6.7%, US 4.2% (2008)
    Imports$415.5 billion (2008 est.)
    $380.2 billion (2007 est.)

    Imports - commodities(%)machinery and equipment, fuels, chemicals, semifinished goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods, measuring and medical control instruments
    Imports - partners(%)Germany 14.5%, France 11.1%, Italy 7.4%, China 6.3%, UK 4.6%, Netherlands 4.4% (2008)

    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$20.25 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
    $19.05 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
    Debt - external$2.317 trillion (31 December 2008)
    $2.299 trillion (31 December 2007)

    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$636.5 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
    $570.7 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$605.3 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
    $687.4 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
    Exchange rateseuros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.6827 (2008 est.), 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004)

    Currency (code)euro (EUR)

    Telephones - main lines in use20.2 million (2008)
    Telephones - mobile cellular49.682 million (2008)
    Telephone systemgeneral assessment: well developed, modern facilities; fixed-line teledensity is roughly 50 per 100 persons
    domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity is nearly 175 telephones per 100 persons
    international: country code - 34; submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, Middle East, Asia, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to adjacent countries
    Internet country code.es
    Internet users25.24 million (2008)
    Airports153 (2009)
    Pipelines(km)gas 7,738 km; oil 560 km; refined products 3,445 km (2008)
    Roadways(km)total: 681,224 km
    paved: 681,224 km (includes 13,872 km of expressways) (2006)

    Ports and terminalsAlgeciras, Barcelona, Bilbao, Cartagena, Huelva, Tarragona, Valencia
    Military branchesSpanish Armed Forces: Army (Ejercito de Tierra), Spanish Navy (Armada Espanola, AE; includes Marine Corps), Spanish Air Force (Ejercito del Aire Espanola, EdA) (2009)
    Military service age and obligation(years of age)20 years of age (2004)
    Manpower available for military servicemales age 16-49: 10,033,069
    females age 16-49: 9,764,937 (2008 est.)
    Manpower fit for military servicemales age 16-49: 8,139,020
    females age 16-49: 7,899,157 (2009 est.)
    Manpower reaching militarily significant age annuallymale: 199,124
    female: 187,224 (2009 est.)
    Military expenditures(% of GDP)1.2% of GDP (2005 est.)
    Disputes - internationalin 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to remain a British colony and against a "total shared sovereignty" arrangement while demanding participation in talks between the UK and Spain; Spain disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar greater autonomy; Morocco protests Spain's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and the islands of Penon de Velez de la Gomera, Penon de Alhucemas, and Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; Morocco serves as the primary launching site of illegal migration into Spain from North Africa; Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz

    Electricity - production(kWh)283.2 billion kWh (2007 est.)
    Electricity - production by source(%)fossil fuel: 50.4%
    hydro: 18.2%
    nuclear: 27.2%
    other: 4.1% (2001)
    Electricity - consumption(kWh)276.1 billion kWh (2008 est.)
    Electricity - exports(kWh)16.92 billion kWh (2008 est.)
    Electricity - imports(kWh)5.88 billion kWh (2008 est.)
    Oil - production(bbl/day)28,130 bbl/day (2008 est.)
    Oil - consumption(bbl/day)1.562 million bbl/day (2008 est.)
    Oil - exports(bbl/day)226,900 bbl/day (2008 est.)
    Oil - imports(bbl/day)1.813 million bbl/day (2008 est.)
    Economic aid - donorODA, $3.814 billion (2006)

    Oil - proved reserves(bbl)150 million bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
    Natural gas - production(cu m)17 million cu m (2008 est.)
    Natural gas - consumption(cu m)38.18 billion cu m (2008 est.)
    Natural gas - exports(cu m)0 cu m (2008)
    Natural gas - proved reserves(cu m)2.548 billion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate(%)0.5% (2007 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS140,000 (2007 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - deaths2,300 (2007 est.)
    Literacy(%)definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 97.9%
    male: 98.7%
    female: 97.2% (2003 est.)

    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)(years)total: 16 years
    male: 16 years
    female: 17 years (2006)
    Education expenditures(% of GDP)4.2% of GDP (2005)

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