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Romania Historical and Political Profile

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Romania Index

  • Romania-Administration
  • Romania-The New Social Order
  • Romania-Penal Code
  • Romania-Goals and Policy FOREIGN TRADE
  • Romania-Banking
  • Romania-Chapter 5 - National Security
  • Romania-Eleventh Party Congress
  • Romania-Climate
  • Romania-Council of Ministers
  • Romania-Other Minerals
  • Romania-Demographics
  • Romania-Procurement and Distribution
  • Romania-The Romanian People's Republic
  • Romania-The Roman Catholic Church
  • Romania-POSTWAR ROMANIA, 1944-85
  • Romania-The Russian Protectorate
  • Romania-Cult of Personality
  • Romania-Primary Education
  • Romania-Boundaries and Geographical Position PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
  • Romania-Ottoman Domination and the Struggle for National Unity and Independence
  • Romania-Naval Construction
  • Romania-World War II
  • Romania-Party Control of the Military
  • Romania-Family
  • Romania-Ceausescu and the Military
  • Romania-Telecommunications
  • Romania-Higher Education
  • Romania-Inland Waterways
  • Romania-Chapter 3 - The Economy
  • Romania-Membership
  • Romania-Officer Education
  • Romania-Ranks, Uniforms, and Insignia
  • Romania-Aircraft Industry
  • Romania-Arms Sales
  • Romania-Topography
  • Romania-Armistice Negotiations and Soviet Occupation
  • Romania-Reserves and Mobilization
  • Romania-Maritime Navigation
  • Romania-Preschool and Kindergarten
  • Romania-The Education System
  • Romania-Planning
  • Romania-Trading Partners
  • Romania-ARMED FORCES
  • Romania-Farm Organization
  • Romania-ROMANIA
  • Romania-General Union of Trade Unions
  • Romania-Geographic Distribution INDUSTRY
  • Romania-Locomotives and Rolling Stock
  • Romania-The Reign of Joseph II
  • Romania-Productivity
  • Romania-Revenues
  • Romania-Coal
  • Romania-Air Transport
  • Romania-Crime
  • Romania-Historical and Geographical Distribution
  • Romania-Romania under Charles of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
  • Romania-The Ottoman Invasions
  • Romania-The Revolution of 1848
  • Romania-Border Guards
  • Romania-MASS MEDIA
  • Romania-Consumption
  • Romania-Military Personnel
  • Romania-Chapter 2 - The Society and Its Environment
  • Romania-Unpaid Labor
  • Romania-Preface
  • Romania-Light Industry
  • Romania-Chapter 1 - Historical Setting
  • Romania-Other Religions
  • Romania-Judicial System
  • Romania-Constitutional Development GOVERNMENTAL SYSTEM
  • Romania-The Getae
  • Romania-The Ruling Elite
  • Romania-Evolution of Military Doctrine
  • Romania-Political Education and Socialization
  • Romania-ECONOMY
  • Romania-Machine Tools
  • Romania-Tenth Party Congress
  • Romania-Union of Communist Youth
  • Romania-The Balkan Wars and World War I
  • Romania-Shipbuilding
  • Romania-Origins of Walachia and Moldavia
  • Romania-Command and Control of the Armed Forces
  • Romania-Nation-Building and National Minorities
  • Romania-Ministry of Interior and Security Forces
  • Romania-Machine Building
  • Romania-Banking institutions
  • Romania-Ideology and Party Program
  • Romania-Local Government
  • Romania-President of the Republic
  • Romania-LAW AND ORDER
  • Romania-Pricing and Profit
  • Romania-Period from 1965 to 1970
  • Romania-Middle East
  • Romania-Soviet Union and Eastern Europe RELATIONS WITH COMMUNIST STATES
  • Romania-Structure of Exports and Imports
  • Romania-Ground Forces
  • Romania-Air Force
  • Romania-The Ceausescu Succession
  • Romania-Rural-Urban Migration
  • Romania-Major Crops
  • Romania-The Romanian Orthodox Church
  • Romania-Fishing
  • Romania-Thirteenth Party Congress
  • Romania-Chemicals
  • Romania-Automotive Industry
  • Romania-Military Courts
  • Romania-Emigration: Problem or Solution?
  • Romania-Foreign Military Relations
  • Romania-Women and Women's Organizations
  • Romania-Oil and Gas
  • Romania-Africa
  • Romania -Country Profile
  • Romania-The Uniate Church
  • Romania-Rehabilitation and De-Stalinization
  • Romania-The End of the Ancien Régime SOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • Romania-Retirement of the Foreign Debt
  • Romania-Credit policy
  • Romania-Language, Education, and Cultural Heritage
  • Romania-United States
  • Romania-Livestock
  • Romania-Electoral System
  • Romania-The Evolution of Family Law
  • Romania-The Age of the Great Migrations
  • Romania-Ownership of Economic Assets
  • Romania-Secondary Education
  • Romania-Forests
  • Romania-The Magyars' Arrival in Transylvania
  • Romania-Dynastic Socialism and the Economic Downturn
  • Romania-The Warsaw Pact
  • Romania-Military Development under Alexandru Ioan Cuza
  • Romania-Other Western Countries
  • Romania-Armed Services
  • Romania-Water
  • Romania-The CSCE Meeting in Vienna
  • Romania-Metallurgy
  • Romania-Settlement Structure
  • Romania-Gheorghiu-Dej's Defiance of Khrushchev
  • Romania-Electric Power
  • Romania-Agricultural Regions
  • Romania-Military Budget
  • Romania-Chapter 4 - Government and Politics
  • Romania-1967 Party Conference
  • Romania-Unification of Transylvania and Hungary
  • Romania-Administration and Control
  • Romania-Military Strategy
  • Romania-Military Training
  • Romania-Arms Control
  • Romania-Emergence of an Organized Opposition
  • Romania-Fossil Fuels
  • Romania-Administrative Hierarchy
  • Romania-Grand National Assembly
  • Romania-Naval Forces
  • Romania-Highways
  • Romania-Currency
  • Romania-Administration
  • Romania-The State Council
  • Romania
  • Romania
  • Romania-Department of External Information
  • Romania-The Romanian Army in World War I
  • Romania-Roman Dacia
  • Romania-Defense of Romanian Lands in Ancient Times and the Middle Ages
  • Romania-Expenditures
  • Romania-Twelfth Party Congress
  • Romania-The State Budget
  • Romania-Development of the Romanian Armed Forces after World War II
  • Romania-Elimination of Opposition Parties
  • Romania-Farming Practices
  • Romania-Administration FOREIGN POLICY
  • Romania-Electrical Engineering
  • Romania-Computers and Automation Technology
  • Romania-Housing
  • Romania-Dissidence
  • Romania-Demographic Policy
  • Romania-Joint Party-State Organizations
  • Romania-Dominance of the Romanian Communist Party
  • Romania-The Uniate Church
  • Romania
  • Romania-Distribution by Economic Sectors LABOR
  • Romania-Energy
  • Romania-Petru Groza's Premiership
  • Romania-GOALS FOR THE 1990s
  • Romania-The Agrarian Crisis and the Rise of the Iron Guard
  • Romania-Social Mobility
  • Romania-Military Labor
  • Romania-Organizational Structure
  • Romania
  • Romania
  • Romania
  • Romania-Changes in Family Structure
  • Romania-The Military and the National Economy
  • Romania-Public Health
  • Romania-Demographic History POPULATION
  • Romania-Education and Legitimacy of the Regime
  • Romania-Government and Party Organization for Defense
  • Romania-Traditional Settlement Patterns
  • Romania-Judicial System
  • Romania-The Post-Stalin Era
  • Romania-GEOGRAPHY
  • Romania-SOCIETY
  • Romania-Family Life
  • Romania-The Proletariat
  • Romania-Greater Romania and the Occupation of Budapest
  • Romania-Hungary
  • Romania-Systematization: A Settlement Strategy
  • Romania-State Welfare Assistance
  • Romania-Religion
  • Romania-Party Training
  • Romania-Arms Production
  • Romania-Aviation Industry
  • Romania-The Intelligentsia
  • BackgroundThe principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia - for centuries under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire - secured their autonomy in 1856; they united in 1859 and a few years later adopted the new name of Romania. The country gained recognition of its independence in 1878. It joined the Allied Powers in World War I and acquired new territories - most notably Transylvania - following the conflict. In 1940, Romania allied with the Axis powers and participated in the 1941 German invasion of the USSR. Three years later, overrun by the Soviets, Romania signed an armistice. The post-war Soviet occupation led to the formation of a Communist "people's republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU, who took power in 1965, and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former Communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Romania joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.
    LocationSoutheastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine
    Area(sq km)total: 238,391 sq km
    land: 229,891 sq km
    water: 8,500 sq km
    Geographic coordinates46 00 N, 25 00 E
    Land boundaries(km)total: 2,508 km
    border countries: Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km, Moldova 450 km, Serbia 476 km, Ukraine (north) 362 km, Ukraine (east) 169 km

    Coastline(km)225 km

    Climatetemperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms

    Elevation extremes(m)lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
    highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m
    Natural resourcespetroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower
    Land use(%)arable land: 39.49%
    permanent crops: 1.92%
    other: 58.59% (2005)

    Irrigated land(sq km)30,770 sq km (2003)
    Total renewable water resources(cu km)42.3 cu km (2003)
    Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)total: 6.5 cu km/yr (9%/34%/57%)
    per capita: 299 cu m/yr (2003)
    Natural hazardsearthquakes, most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides
    Environment - current issuessoil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - notecontrols most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine
    Population22,215,421 (July 2009 est.)
    Age structure(%)0-14 years: 15.5% (male 1,772,583/female 1,681,539)
    15-64 years: 69.7% (male 7,711,062/female 7,784,041)
    65 years and over: 14.7% (male 1,332,120/female 1,934,076) (2009 est.)
    Median age(years)total: 37.7 years
    male: 36.3 years
    female: 39.2 years (2009 est.)
    Population growth rate(%)-0.147% (2009 est.)
    Birth rate(births/1,000 population)10.53 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
    Death rate(deaths/1,000 population)11.88 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

    Net migration rate(migrant(s)/1,000 population)-0.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
    Urbanization(%)urban population: 54% of total population (2008)
    rate of urbanization: -0.1% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
    Sex ratio(male(s)/female)at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
    under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
    Infant mortality rate(deaths/1,000 live births)total: 22.9 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 25.94 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 19.66 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

    Life expectancy at birth(years)total population: 72.45 years
    male: 68.95 years
    female: 76.16 years (2009 est.)

    Total fertility rate(children born/woman)1.39 children born/woman (2009 est.)
    Nationalitynoun: Romanian(s)
    adjective: Romanian
    Ethnic groups(%)Romanian 89.5%, Hungarian 6.6%, Roma 2.5%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.3%, Russian 0.2%, Turkish 0.2%, other 0.4% (2002 census)

    Religions(%)Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 86.8%, Protestant (various denominations including Reformate and Pentecostal) 7.5%, Roman Catholic 4.7%, other (mostly Muslim) and unspecified 0.9%, none 0.1% (2002 census)
    Languages(%)Romanian 91% (official), Hungarian 6.7%, Romany (Gypsy) 1.1%, other 1.2%

    Country nameconventional long form: none
    conventional short form: Romania
    local long form: none
    local short form: Romania
    Government typerepublic
    Capitalname: Bucharest
    geographic coordinates: 44 26 N, 26 06 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    Administrative divisions41 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti (Bucharest)*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dimbovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Vilcea, Vrancea
    Constitution8 December 1991; revised 29 October 2003

    Legal systembased on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

    Suffrage18 years of age; universal
    Executive branchchief of state: President Traian BASESCU (since 20 December 2004)
    head of government: Prime Minister Emil BOC (since 22 December 2008); Deputy Prime Minister Marko BELA (since 23 December 2009)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 22 November 2009 with runoff on 6 December 2009 (next to be held in November-December 2014); prime minister appointed by the president with the consent of the Parliament
    election results: Traian BASESCU reelected president; percent of vote - Traian BASESCU 50.3%, Mircea GEOANA 49.7%

    Legislative branchbicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (137 seats; members are elected by popular vote in a mixed electoral system to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera Deputatilor (334 seats; members are elected by popular vote in a mixed electoral system to serve four-year terms)
    elections: Senate - last held 30 November 2008 (next expected to be held in November 2012); Chamber of Deputies - last held 30 November 2008 (next expected to be held November 2012)
    election results: Senate - percent of vote by alliance/party - PSD-PC 34.2%, PD-L 33.6%, PNL 18.7%, UDMR 6.4%, other 7.1%; seats by alliance/party - PSD-PC 49, PD-L 51, PNL 28, UDMR 9; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by alliance/party - PSD-PC 33.1%, PD-L 32.4%, PNL 18.6%, UDMR 6.2%, ethnic minorities 3.6%, other 6.1%; seats by alliance/party - PSD-PC 114, PD-L 115, PNL 65, UDMR 22, ethnic minorities 18

    Judicial branchSupreme Court of Justice (comprised of 11 judges appointed for three-year terms by the president in consultation with the Superior Council of Magistrates, which is comprised of the minister of justice, the prosecutor general, two civil society representatives appointed by the Senate, and 14 judges and prosecutors elected by their peers); a separate body, the Constitutional Court, validates elections and makes decisions regarding the constitutionality of laws, treaties, ordinances, and internal rules of the Parliament; it is comprised of nine members serving nine-year terms, with three members each appointed by the president, the Senate, and the Chamber of Deputies

    Political pressure groups and leadersother: various human rights and professional associations
    International organization participationAustralia Group, BIS, BSEC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA (cooperating state), EU, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUC, NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    Flag descriptionthree equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed; now similar to the flag of Chad, also resembles the flags of Andorra and Moldova

    Economy - overviewRomania, which joined the European Union on 1 January 2007, began the transition from Communism in 1989 with a largely obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to the country's needs. The country emerged in 2000 from a punishing three-year recession thanks to strong demand in EU export markets. Domestic consumption and investment have fueled strong GDP growth in recent years, but have led to large current account imbalances. Romania's macroeconomic gains have only recently started to spur creation of a middle class and address Romania's widespread poverty. Corruption and red tape continue to handicap its business environment. Inflation rose in 2007-08, driven in part by strong consumer demand and high wage growth, rising energy costs, a nation-wide drought affecting food prices, and a relaxation of fiscal discipline. Romania's strong GDP growth moderated markedly in the last quarter of 2008 as the country began to feel the effects of a global downturn in financial markets and trade, and growth is expected to be much weaker in 2009. Romania hopes to adopt the euro by 2014.
    GDP (purchasing power parity)$272 billion (2008 est.)
    $254 billion (2007 est.)
    $239.2 billion (2006 est.)
    note: data are in 2008 US dollars
    GDP (official exchange rate)$200.1 billion (2008 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate(%)7.1% (2008 est.)
    6.2% (2007 est.)
    7.9% (2006 est.)
    GDP - per capita (PPP)$12,200 (2008 est.)
    $11,400 (2007 est.)
    $10,700 (2006 est.)
    note: data are in 2008 US dollars
    GDP - composition by sector(%)agriculture: 8.1%
    industry: 36%
    services: 55.9% (2008 est.)
    Labor force9.32 million (2008 est.)

    Labor force - by occupation(%)agriculture: 29.7%
    industry: 23.2%
    services: 47.1% (2006)
    Unemployment rate(%)4.4% (2008 est.)
    4.1% (2007 est.)
    Population below poverty line(%)25% (2005 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share(%)lowest 10%: 1.2%
    highest 10%: 20.8% (2006)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index32 (2008)
    28.8 (2003)
    Investment (gross fixed)(% of GDP)33.3% of GDP (2008 est.)
    Budgetrevenues: $65.29 billion
    expenditures: $74.99 billion (2008 est.)
    Inflation rate (consumer prices)(%)7.8% (2008 est.)
    4.8% (2007 est.)

    Stock of money$25.3 billion (31 December 2008)
    $25.17 billion (31 December 2007)
    Stock of quasi money$36.09 billion (31 December 2008)
    $34.96 billion (31 December 2007)
    Stock of domestic credit$72.85 billion (31 December 2008)
    $58.76 billion (31 December 2007)
    Market value of publicly traded shares$19.92 billion (31 December 2008)
    $44.93 billion (31 December 2007)
    $32.78 billion (31 December 2006)
    Economic aid - recipient$914.3 million (2004)

    Public debt(% of GDP)14.7% of GDP (2008 est.)
    23.6% of GDP (2004 est.)
    Agriculture - productswheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, grapes; eggs, sheep
    Industrieselectric machinery and equipment, textiles and footwear, light machinery and auto assembly, mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining

    Industrial production growth rate(%)7.1% (2008 est.)

    Current account balance-$24.81 billion (2008 est.)
    -$23.02 billion (2007 est.)
    Exports$49.41 billion (2008 est.)
    $40.32 billion (2007 est.)

    Exports - commodities(%)machinery and equipment, textiles and footwear, metals and metal products, machinery and equipment, minerals and fuels, chemicals, agricultural products
    Exports - partners(%)Germany 16.5%, Italy 15.6%, France 7.4%, Turkey 6.6%, Hungary 5.1%, Bulgaria 4.2% (2008)
    Imports$76.17 billion (2008 est.)
    $64.54 billion (2007 est.)

    Imports - commodities(%)machinery and equipment, fuels and minerals, chemicals, textile and products, metals, agricultural products
    Imports - partners(%)Germany 16.3%, Italy 11.4%, Hungary 7.4%, Russia 6%, France 5.7%, Turkey 4.9%, Austria 4.9%, Kazakhstan 4.6%, China 4.2% (2008)

    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$39.47 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
    $39.96 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
    Debt - external$102.2 billion (31 December 2008)
    $NA (31 December 2007 est.)

    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$72.61 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
    $62.86 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$921 million (31 December 2008 est.)
    $1.238 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
    Exchange rateslei (RON) per US dollar - 2.5 (2008 est.), 2.43 (2007), 2.809 (2006), 3 (2005), 3 (2004)

    Currency (code)new leu (RON) was introduced in 2005; "old" leu (ROL) was phased out in 2006; note - because of currency revaluation, 10,000 ROL = 1 RON

    Telephones - main lines in use5.036 million (2007)
    Telephones - mobile cellular24.467 million (2008)
    Telephone systemgeneral assessment: the telecommunications sector is being expanded and modernized; domestic and international service improving rapidly, especially mobile-cellular services
    domestic: more than 90 percent of telephone network is automatic; fixed-line teledensity exceeds 20 telephones per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity, expanding rapidly, roughly 110 telephones per 100 persons
    international: country code - 40; the Black Sea Fiber Optic System provides connectivity to Bulgaria and Turkey; satellite earth stations - 10; digital, international, direct-dial exchanges operate in Bucharest (2008)
    Internet country code.ro
    Internet users6.132 million (2008)
    Airports53 (2009)
    Pipelines(km)gas 3,588 km; oil 2,424 km (2008)
    Roadways(km)total: 198,817 km
    paved: 60,043 km (includes 228 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 138,774 km (2004)

    Ports and terminalsBraila, Constanta, Galati, Tulcea
    Military branchesLand Forces, Naval Forces, Romanian Air Force (Fortele Aeriene Romane, FAR), Special Operations (2009)
    Military service age and obligation(years of age)18-35 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; conscription officially ended October 2006; all military inductees (including women) contract for an initial 5-year term of service, with subsequent successive contracts for 3-year terms until age 36 (2009)
    Manpower available for military servicemales age 16-49: 5,682,299
    females age 16-49: 5,557,098 (2008 est.)
    Manpower fit for military servicemales age 16-49: 4,542,720
    females age 16-49: 4,604,484 (2009 est.)
    Manpower reaching militarily significant age annuallymale: 124,356
    female: 118,430 (2009 est.)
    Military expenditures(% of GDP)1.9% of GDP (2007 est.)
    Disputes - internationalthe ICJ gave Ukraine until December 2006 to reply, and Romania until June 2007 to issue a rejoinder, in their dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; Romania also opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea

    Electricity - production(kWh)58.28 billion kWh (2007 est.)
    Electricity - production by source(%)fossil fuel: 62.5%
    hydro: 27.6%
    nuclear: 9.9%
    other: 0% (2001)
    Electricity - consumption(kWh)49.44 billion kWh (2007 est.)
    Electricity - exports(kWh)5.169 billion kWh (2008 est.)
    Electricity - imports(kWh)921 million kWh (2008 est.)
    Oil - production(bbl/day)115,200 bbl/day (2008 est.)
    Oil - consumption(bbl/day)219,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
    Oil - exports(bbl/day)115,600 bbl/day (2007 est.)
    Oil - imports(bbl/day)217,000 bbl/day (2007 est.)
    Oil - proved reserves(bbl)600 million bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
    Natural gas - production(cu m)11.42 billion cu m (2008 est.)
    Natural gas - consumption(cu m)16.92 billion cu m (2008 est.)
    Natural gas - exports(cu m)0 cu m (2008)
    Natural gas - proved reserves(cu m)63 billion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate(%)less than 0.1% (2007 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS15,000 (2007 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - deaths350 (2001 est.)
    Literacy(%)definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 97.3%
    male: 98.4%
    female: 96.3% (2002 census)

    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)(years)total: 14 years
    male: 14 years
    female: 14 years (2006)
    Education expenditures(% of GDP)3.5% of GDP (2005)

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