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Philippines Historical and Political Profile

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Philippines Index

  • Philippines-United States Reactions
  • Philippines-Rice and the Green Revolution
  • Philippines-National Government
  • Philippines-Finance THE SERVICE SECTOR
  • Philippines-Japan
  • Philippines-Ecumenical Developments
  • Philippines-Agricultural Production and Government Policy
  • Philippines-Relations with Asian Neighbors
  • Philippines-Land Tenancy and Land Reform
  • Philippines-Crime
  • Philippines-Criminal Procedure
  • Philippines-Uniforms, Ranks, and Insignia
  • Philippines-Law Enforcement
  • Philippines-EARLY HISTORY
  • Philippines-Regional Autonomy
  • Philippines-The Armed Forces
  • Philippines-Organization and Training
  • Philippines-The Business Elite
  • Philippines-The Tenancy Problem
  • Philippines-Chapter 3 - The Economy
  • Philippines-Vigilantes
  • Philippines-Military Operations and Tactics
  • Philippines-Labor Relations
  • Philippines-Indigenous Christian Churches
  • Philippines-Foreign Military Relations
  • Philippines-Penal Law
  • Philippines-External Debt
  • Philippines-Legislative Department
  • Philippines-The 1896 Uprising and Rizal's Execution
  • Philippines-Population Control
  • Philippines-Historical Background
  • Philippines-Progovernment Parties
  • Philippines-GEOGRAPHY
  • Philippines-Leadership and Organization
  • Philippines-Foreign Investment
  • Philippines-Islam
  • Philippines-Transportation
  • Philippines-The Huk Rebellion
  • Philippines-Local Government
  • Philippines-THE DECLINE OF SPANISH RULE, 1762-1898
  • Philippines-Muslim Filipinos
  • Philippines-Commonwealth Politics, 1935-41 THE COMMONWEALTH AND THE JAPANESE OCCUPATION
  • Philippines-International Trade INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS
  • Philippines-Judicial Department
  • Philippines-Financing and Foreign Support
  • Philippines-The Return of Old-Style Politics in the Countryside
  • Philippines-EDUCATION
  • Philippines-Filipino Nationalism
  • Philippines-FOREIGN AFFAIRS
  • Philippines-The Lowland Christian Population
  • Philippines-Relations with the Middle East
  • Philippines-Economic Development Until 1970 POLITICAL ECONOMY OF DEVELOPMENT
  • Philippines-Political Organizing and Front Groups
  • Philippines-Coconut Industry
  • Philippines-Historical Background THE ARMED FORCES IN NATIONAL LIFE
  • Philippines-The Development of a National Consciousness
  • Philippines-Military Factions
  • Philippines-Army
  • Philippines-Historical Background
  • Philippines-Labor Force and Employment
  • Philippines-Resistance Movements
  • Philippines-Church-State Relations
  • Philippines-Tourism
  • Philippines-Migration
  • Philippines-RELIGIOUS LIFE
  • Philippines-Agricultural Geography AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY, AND FISHING
  • Philippines-The Inheritance from Marcos
  • Philippines-The Katipunan
  • Philippines-ECONOMIC WELFARE
  • Philippines-THE EARLY SPANISH PERIOD, 1521-1762
  • Philippines-Energy
  • Philippines-The Jones Act
  • Philippines-Malaysia
  • Philippines-Church and State
  • Philippines-Extent of Poverty
  • Philippines-Unsolved Political Problems
  • Philippines-China
  • Philippines-Martial Law and its Aftermath, (1972-86)
  • Philippines-Population Growth POPULATION
  • Philippines-Ideology and Strategy
  • Philippines-Political Parties
  • Philippines-Mining
  • Philippines-Recruitment and Personnel
  • Philippines-Language Diversity and Uniformity
  • Philippines-Philippines
  • Philippines-The Coalition Comes Undone (1986-87)
  • Philippines-PHYSICAL SETTING
  • Philippines-The Correctional System
  • Philippines-Marcos and the Road to Martial Law, 1965-72
  • Philippines
  • Philippines-Defense Spending and Industry
  • Philippines
  • Philippines-The Media
  • Philippines-SOCIETY
  • Philippines-The Chinese
  • Philippines-THE CLIMATE
  • Philippines-Historical Development of Ethnic Identities ETHNICITY, REGIONALISM, AND LANGUAGE
  • Philippines
  • Philippines-Chapter 4 - Government and Politics
  • Philippines-Voting and Elections
  • Philippines-The Magsaysay, Garcia, and Macapagal Administrations, 1953- 65
  • Philippines
  • Philippines-The Rise of Corazon Aquino
  • Philippines
  • Philippines-Development of the Revolutionary Movement
  • Philippines-Roman Catholicism
  • Philippines-Relations with the Soviet Union
  • Philippines-The Malolos Constitution and the Treaty of Paris
  • Philippines-Introduction
  • Philippines-Salary and Benefits
  • Philippines-ECONOMY
  • Philippines-The New Society
  • Philippines
  • Philippines-The Moros
  • Philippines-Philippine Constabulary
  • Philippines-World War II, 1941-45
  • Philippines-Proclamation 1081 and Martial Law
  • Philippines-Political Economy of United States Military Bases
  • Philippines-Relations with the United States
  • Philippines-Iglesia ni Kristo
  • Philippines-Development Assistance
  • Philippines-Education in the Modern Period
  • Philippines-The Counterinsurgency Campaign
  • Philippines-Trade with Europe and America
  • Philippines-Organization
  • Philippines -COUNTRY PROFILE
  • Philippines
  • Philippines-The President and the Coup Plotters
  • Philippines
  • Philippines-THE FIRST PHASE OF UNITED STATES RULE, 1898-1935
  • Philippines-The Communist Insurgency
  • Philippines-The Snap Election and Marcos's Ouster
  • Philippines
  • Philippines-Chapter 2 - The Society and Its Environment
  • Philippines-Sugar
  • Philippines-Fishing
  • Philippines-FOREWORD
  • Philippines-Fiscal Policy
  • Philippines
  • Philippines-A Collaborative Philippine Leadership
  • Philippines-The Old Political Opposition
  • Philippines-Development Planning
  • Philippines-Telecommunications and Postal Services
  • Philippines-Executive Department
  • Philippines-Philippines
  • Philippines-Reserves and Auxiliaries
  • Philippines-The Friarocracy
  • Philippines-The Left
  • Philippines-PREFACE
  • Philippines-Causes of Poverty
  • Philippines-Crony Capitalism
  • Philippines-Chapter 5 - National Security
  • Philippines
  • Philippines
  • Philippines
  • Philippines-Economic and Social Developments
  • Philippines-External Defense
  • Philippines-Civil-Military Relations
  • Philippines-Navy
  • Philippines-Air Force
  • Philippines-Constitutional Framework
  • Philippines-Protestantism
  • Philippines-Chapter 1 - Historical Setting
  • Philippines-Opposition Parties
  • Philippines-POLITICS
  • Philippines-Economic Relations with the United States after Independence
  • BackgroundThe Philippine Islands became a Spanish colony during the 16th century; they were ceded to the US in 1898 following the Spanish-American War. In 1935 the Philippines became a self-governing commonwealth. Manuel QUEZON was elected president and was tasked with preparing the country for independence after a 10-year transition. In 1942 the islands fell under Japanese occupation during World War II, and US forces and Filipinos fought together during 1944-45 to regain control. On 4 July 1946 the Republic of the Philippines attained its independence. The 20-year rule of Ferdinand MARCOS ended in 1986, when a "people power" movement in Manila ("EDSA 1") forced him into exile and installed Corazon AQUINO as president. Her presidency was hampered by several coup attempts, which prevented a return to full political stability and economic development. Fidel RAMOS was elected president in 1992 and his administration was marked by greater stability and progress on economic reforms. In 1992, the US closed its last military bases on the islands. Joseph ESTRADA was elected president in 1998, but was succeeded by his vice-president, Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO, in January 2001 after ESTRADA's stormy impeachment trial on corruption charges broke down and another "people power" movement ("EDSA 2") demanded his resignation. MACAPAGAL-ARROYO was elected to a six-year term as president in May 2004. The Philippine Government faces threats from three terrorist groups on the US Government's Foreign Terrorist Organization list, but in 2006 and 2007 scored some major successes in capturing or killing key wanted terrorists. Decades of Muslim insurgency in the southern Philippines have led to a peace accord with one group and on-again/off-again peace talks with another.
    LocationSoutheastern Asia, archipelago between the Philippine Sea and the South China Sea, east of Vietnam
    Area(sq km)total: 300,000 sq km
    land: 298,170 sq km
    water: 1,830 sq km
    Geographic coordinates13 00 N, 122 00 E
    Land boundaries(km)0 km

    Coastline(km)36,289 km

    Climatetropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April); southwest monsoon (May to October)

    Elevation extremes(m)lowest point: Philippine Sea 0 m
    highest point: Mount Apo 2,954 m
    Natural resourcestimber, petroleum, nickel, cobalt, silver, gold, salt, copper
    Land use(%)arable land: 19%
    permanent crops: 16.67%
    other: 64.33% (2005)

    Irrigated land(sq km)15,500 sq km (2003)
    Total renewable water resources(cu km)479 cu km (1999)
    Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)total: 28.52 cu km/yr (17%/9%/74%)
    per capita: 343 cu m/yr (2000)
    Natural hazardsastride typhoon belt, usually affected by 15 and struck by five to six cyclonic storms per year; landslides; active volcanoes; destructive earthquakes; tsunamis
    Environment - current issuesuncontrolled deforestation especially in watershed areas; soil erosion; air and water pollution in major urban centers; coral reef degradation; increasing pollution of coastal mangrove swamps that are important fish breeding grounds
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
    Geography - notethe Philippine archipelago is made up of 7,107 islands; favorably located in relation to many of Southeast Asia's main water bodies: the South China Sea, Philippine Sea, Sulu Sea, Celebes Sea, and Luzon Strait
    Population97,976,603 (July 2009 est.)
    Age structure(%)0-14 years: 35.2% (male 17,606,352/female 16,911,376)
    15-64 years: 60.6% (male 29,679,327/female 29,737,919)
    65 years and over: 4.1% (male 1,744,248/female 2,297,381) (2009 est.)
    Median age(years)total: 22.5 years
    male: 22 years
    female: 23 years (2009 est.)
    Population growth rate(%)1.957% (2009 est.)
    Birth rate(births/1,000 population)26.01 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
    Death rate(deaths/1,000 population)5.1 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

    Net migration rate(migrant(s)/1,000 population)-1.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
    Urbanization(%)urban population: 65% of total population (2008)
    rate of urbanization: 3% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
    Sex ratio(male(s)/female)at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
    total population: 1 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
    Infant mortality rate(deaths/1,000 live births)total: 20.56 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 23.17 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 17.83 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

    Life expectancy at birth(years)total population: 71.09 years
    male: 68.17 years
    female: 74.15 years (2009 est.)

    Total fertility rate(children born/woman)3.27 children born/woman (2009 est.)
    Nationalitynoun: Filipino(s)
    adjective: Philippine
    Ethnic groups(%)Tagalog 28.1%, Cebuano 13.1%, Ilocano 9%, Bisaya/Binisaya 7.6%, Hiligaynon Ilonggo 7.5%, Bikol 6%, Waray 3.4%, other 25.3% (2000 census)

    Religions(%)Roman Catholic 80.9%, Muslim 5%, Evangelical 2.8%, Iglesia ni Kristo 2.3%, Aglipayan 2%, other Christian 4.5%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.6%, none 0.1% (2000 census)
    Languages(%)Filipino (official; based on Tagalog) and English (official); eight major dialects - Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon or Ilonggo, Bicol, Waray, Pampango, and Pangasinan

    Country nameconventional long form: Republic of the Philippines
    conventional short form: Philippines
    local long form: Republika ng Pilipinas
    local short form: Pilipinas
    Government typerepublic
    Capitalname: Manila
    geographic coordinates: 14 35 N, 121 00 E
    time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions80 provinces and 120 chartered cities
    provinces: Abra, Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Aklan, Albay, Antique, Apayao, Aurora, Basilan, Bataan, Batanes, Batangas, Biliran, Benguet, Bohol, Bukidnon, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Camiguin, Capiz, Catanduanes, Cavite, Cebu, Compostela, Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental, Dinagat Islands, Eastern Samar, Guimaras, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Iloilo, Isabela, Kalinga, Laguna, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, La Union, Leyte, Maguindanao, Marinduque, Masbate, Mindoro Occidental, Mindoro Oriental, Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental, Mountain Province, Negros Occidental, Negros Oriental, North Cotabato, Northern Samar, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Palawan, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Quirino, Rizal, Romblon, Samar, Sarangani, Siquijor, Sorsogon, South Cotabato, Southern Leyte, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, Tarlac, Tawi-Tawi, Zambales, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga Sibugay
    chartered cities: Alaminos, Angeles, Antipolo, Bacolod, Bago, Baguio, Bais, Balanga, Batac, Batangas, Bayawan, Bislig, Butuan, Cabadbaran, Cabanatuan, Cadiz, Cagayan de Oro, Calamba, Calapan, Calbayog, Candon, Canlaon, Cauayan, Cavite, Cebu, Cotabato, Dagupan, Danao, Dapitan, Davao, Digos, Dipolog, Dumaguete, Escalante, Gapan, General Santos, Gingoog, Himamaylan, Iligan, Iloilo, Isabela, Iriga, Kabankalan, Kalookan, Kidapawan, Koronadal, La Carlota, Laoag, Lapu-Lapu, Las Pinas, Legazpi, Ligao, Lipa, Lucena, Maasin, Makati, Malabon, Malaybalay, Malolos, Mandaluyong, Mandaue, Manila, Marawi, Marikina, Masbate, Mati, Meycauayan, Muntinlupa, Munoz, Naga, Navotas, Olongapo, Ormoc, Oroquieta, Ozamis, Pagadian, Palayan, Panabo, Paranaque, Pasay, Pasig, Passi, Puerto Princesa, Quezon, Roxas, Sagay, Samal, San Carlos (in Negros Occidental), San Carlos (in Pangasinan), San Fernando (in La Union), San Fernando (in Pampanga), San Jose, San Jose del Monte, San Juan, San Pablo, Santa Rosa, Santiago, Silay, Sipalay, Sorsogon, Surigao, Tabaco, Tacloban, Tacurong, Tagaytay, Tagbilaran, Taguig, Tagum, Talisay (in Cebu), Talisay (in Negros Occidental), Tanauan, Tangub, Tanjay, Tarlac, Toledo, Tuguegarao, Trece Martires, Urdaneta, Valencia, Valenzuela, Victorias, Vigan, Zamboanga (2009)
    Constitution2 February 1987, effective 11 February 1987

    Legal systembased on Spanish and Anglo-American law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

    Suffrage18 years of age; universal
    Executive branchchief of state: President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO (since 20 January 2001); Vice President (Manuel "Noli" DE CASTRO (since 10 May 2004); note - president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO (since 20 January 2001)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with consent of Commission of Appointments
    elections: president and vice president elected on separate tickets by popular vote for a single six-year term; election last held on 10 May 2004 (next to be held in May 2010)
    election results: Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO elected president; percent of vote - Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO 40%, Fernando POE 37%, three others 23%

    Legislative branchbicameral Congress or Kongreso consists of the Senate or Senado (24 seats - one-half elected every three years; members elected at large by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Kapulungan Ng Nga Kinatawan (as a result of May 2007 election it has 240 seats including 218 members representing districts and 22 sectoral party-list members representing special minorities elected on the basis of 1 seat for every 2% of the total vote but limited to 3 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms; note - the Constitution prohibits the House of Representatives from having more than 250 members)
    elections: Senate - last held on 14 May 2007 (next to be held in May 2010); House of Representatives - elections last held on 14 May 2007 (next to be held in May 2010)
    election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Lakas 4, LP 4, Nacionalista 3, NPC 2, PDP-Laban 2, PMP 2, Kampi 1, LDP 1, PRP 1, independents 3; note - there are 23 rather than 24 sitting senators because one senator was elected mayor of Manila; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Lakas 92, Kampi 54, NPC 25, LP 21, Party-list 22, independents 3, others 26; there are 238 rather than 240 sitting representatives because two died in office

    Judicial branchSupreme Court (15 justices are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial and Bar Council and serve until 70 years of age); Court of Appeals; Sandigan-bayan (special court for hearing corruption cases of government officials)

    Political pressure groups and leadersABONO [Robert ESTRELLA]; AKBAYAN [Anna Theresia BARAQUIEL]; An Waray [Florencio NOEL]; Anak Mindanao [Mujiv HATAMIN]; ANAKPAWIS [Rafael MARIANO]; ARC [Narciso SANTIAGO III]; Association of Philippine Electric Cooperatives (APEC) [Ernesto PABLO and Edgar VALDEZ]; A TEACHER [Mariano PIAMONTE]; Bayan Muna [Satur OCAMPO and Teodoro CASINO, Jr.]; Black and White Movement [Vicente ROMANO]; BUHAY [Rene VELARDE, Carissa COSCOLLUELLA, and William TIENG]; BUTIL [Leonila CHAVEZ]; CIBAC [Emmanuel Joel VILLANUEVA]; COOP-NATCO [Jose PING-AY]; GABRIELA [Liza MAZA and Luzviminda ILAGAN]; Kilosbayan [Jovito SALONGA]; YACAP [Carol LOPEZ]
    Flag descriptiontwo equal horizontal bands of blue (top; representing peace and justice) and red (representing courage); a white equilateral triangle based on the hoist side represents equality; the center of the triangle displays a yellow sun with eight primary rays, each representing one of the first eight provinces that sought independence from Spain; each corner of the triangle contains a small, yellow, five-pointed star representing the three major geographical divisions of the country: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao; the design of the flag dates to 1897; in wartime the flag is flown upside down with the red band at the top

    Economy - overviewEconomic growth has averaged 5% since President MACAPAGAL-ARROYO took office in 2001. MACAPAGAL-ARROYO averted a fiscal crisis by pushing for new revenue measures and, until recently, tightening expenditures. Declining fiscal deficits, tapering debt and debt service ratios, and increased spending on infrastructure and social services bolstered optimism over Philippine economic prospects. Although the general macroeconomic outlook improved significantly in recent years, the economy still faces several long term challenges. The Philippines must maintain the reform momentum in order to catch up with regional competitors, improve employment opportunities, and alleviate poverty. The Philippines will need still higher, sustained growth to make progress in alleviating poverty, given its high population growth and unequal distribution of income. The Philippine economy grew at its fastest pace in three decades in 2007 with real GDP growth exceeding 7%, but growth slowed to 3.8% in 2008 as a result of the world financial crisis. High government spending, a relatively small trade sector, a resilient service sector, and large remittances from the four- to five-million Filipinos who work abroad have helped cushion the economy from the current financial crisis.
    GDP (purchasing power parity)$318.2 billion (2008 est.)
    $306.6 billion (2007 est.)
    $286.2 billion (2006 est.)
    note: data are in 2008 US dollars
    GDP (official exchange rate)$166.9 billion (2008 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate(%)3.8% (2008 est.)
    7.1% (2007 est.)
    5.3% (2006 est.)
    GDP - per capita (PPP)$3,300 (2008 est.)
    $3,300 (2007 est.)
    $3,100 (2006 est.)
    note: data are in 2008 US dollars
    GDP - composition by sector(%)agriculture: 14.7%
    industry: 31.6%
    services: 53.7% (2008 est.)
    Labor force36.81 million (2008 est.)

    Labor force - by occupation(%)agriculture: 35%
    industry: 15%
    services: 50% (2008 est.)
    Unemployment rate(%)7.4% (2008 est.)
    7.3% (2007 est.)
    Population below poverty line(%)30% (2003 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share(%)lowest 10%: 2.4%
    highest 10%: 31.2% (2006)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index45.8 (2006)
    46.6 (2003)
    Investment (gross fixed)(% of GDP)14.8% of GDP (2008 est.)
    Budgetrevenues: $27.05 billion
    expenditures: $28.58 billion (2008 est.)
    Inflation rate (consumer prices)(%)9.3% (2008 est.)
    2.8% (2007 est.)

    Stock of money$22.53 billion (31 December 2008)
    $21.27 billion (31 December 2007)
    Stock of quasi money$NA (31 December 2008)
    $65.85 billion (31 December 2007)
    Stock of domestic credit$NA (31 December 2008)
    $65.66 billion (31 December 2007)
    Market value of publicly traded shares$52.1 billion (31 December 2008)
    $103.2 billion (31 December 2007)
    $68.38 billion (31 December 2006)
    Economic aid - recipientODA, $451.4 million in commitments (2006)

    Public debt(% of GDP)56.9% of GDP (2008 est.)
    74.2% of GDP (September 2004 est.)
    Agriculture - productssugarcane, coconuts, rice, corn, bananas, cassavas, pineapples, mangoes; pork, eggs, beef; fish
    Industrieselectronics assembly, garments, footwear, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, wood products, food processing, petroleum refining, fishing

    Industrial production growth rate(%)5% (2008 est.)

    Current account balance$4.227 billion (2008 est.)
    $7.119 billion (2007 est.)
    Exports$48.2 billion (2008 est.)
    $49.51 billion (2007 est.)

    Exports - commodities(%)semiconductors and electronic products, transport equipment, garments, copper products, petroleum products, coconut oil, fruits
    Exports - partners(%)US 16.7%, Japan 15.7%, China 11.1%, Hong Kong 10.1%, Netherlands 7.5%, Singapore 5.3%, South Korea 5.1%, Germany 5% (2008)
    Imports$60.78 billion (2008 est.)
    $57.9 billion (2007 est.)

    Imports - commodities(%)electronic products, mineral fuels, machinery and transport equipment, iron and steel, textile fabrics, grains, chemicals, plastic
    Imports - partners(%)US 12.8%, Japan 11.8%, Singapore 10.3%, Saudi Arabia 8.5%, China 7.5%, South Korea 5.2%, Thailand 5%, Malaysia 4.3% (2008)

    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$37.55 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
    $33.75 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
    Debt - external$66.27 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
    $61.78 billion (31 December 2007 est.)

    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$21.4 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
    $19.88 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$5.81 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
    $5.584 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
    Exchange ratesPhilippine pesos (PHP) per US dollar - 44.439 (2008 est.), 46.148 (2007), 51.246 (2006), 55.086 (2005), 56.04 (2004)

    Currency (code)Philippine peso (PHP)

    Telephones - main lines in use3.905 million (2008)
    Telephones - mobile cellular68.102 million (2008)
    Telephone systemgeneral assessment: good international radiotelephone and submarine cable services; domestic and interisland service adequate
    domestic: domestic satellite system with 11 earth stations; cellular communications now dominate the industry; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone density about 80 telephones per 100 persons
    international: country code - 63; a series of submarine cables together provide connectivity to Asia, US, the Middle East, and Europe; multiple international gateways (2008)
    Internet country code.ph
    Internet users5.618 million (2008)
    Airports254 (2009)
    Pipelines(km)oil 107 km; refined products 112 km (2008)
    Roadways(km)total: 201,910 km
    paved: 21,677 km
    unpaved: 180,233 km (2008)

    Ports and terminalsCagayan de Oro, Cebu, Davao, Liman, Manila, Nasipit Harbor
    Military branchesArmed Forces of the Philippines (AFP): Army, Navy (includes Marine Corps and Coast Guard), Air Force (2009)
    Military service age and obligation(years of age)18-25 years of age (officers 21-29) for compulsory and voluntary military service; applicants must be single male or female Philippine citizens (2007)
    Manpower available for military servicemales age 16-49: 23,547,252
    females age 16-49: 23,177,487 (2008 est.)
    Manpower fit for military servicemales age 16-49: 19,169,298
    females age 16-49: 20,636,853 (2009 est.)
    Manpower reaching militarily significant age annuallymale: 1,023,431
    female: 986,434 (2009 est.)
    Military expenditures(% of GDP)0.9% of GDP (2005 est.)
    Disputes - internationalPhilippines claims sovereignty over certain of the Spratly Islands, known locally as the Kalayaan (Freedom) Islands, also claimed by China, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Vietnam; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea," has eased tensions in the Spratly Islands but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; in March 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands; Philippines retains a dormant claim to Malaysia's Sabah State in northern Borneo based on the Sultanate of Sulu's granting the Philippines Government power of attorney to pursue a sovereignty claim on his behalf; maritime delimitation negotiations continue with Palau

    Refugees and internally displaced personsIDPs: 300,000 (fighting between government troops and MILF and Abu Sayyaf groups) (2007)
    Electricity - production(kWh)56.57 billion kWh (2007 est.)
    Electricity - production by source(%)fossil fuel: 55.6%
    hydro: 17.5%
    nuclear: 0%
    other: 26.9% (2001)
    Electricity - consumption(kWh)48.96 billion kWh (2007 est.)
    Electricity - exports(kWh)0 kWh (2008 est.)
    Electricity - imports(kWh)0 kWh (2008 est.)
    Oil - production(bbl/day)25,120 bbl/day (2008 est.)
    Oil - consumption(bbl/day)320,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
    Oil - exports(bbl/day)36,720 bbl/day (2007 est.)
    Oil - imports(bbl/day)342,200 bbl/day (2007 est.)
    Oil - proved reserves(bbl)138.5 million bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
    Natural gas - production(cu m)2.94 billion cu m (2008 est.)
    Natural gas - consumption(cu m)2.94 billion cu m (2008 est.)
    Natural gas - exports(cu m)0 cu m (2008)
    Natural gas - proved reserves(cu m)98.54 billion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate(%)less than 0.1% (2003 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS8,300 (2007 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - deathsfewer than 200 (2007 est.)
    Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and Japanese encephalitis
    water contact disease: leptospirosis (2009)
    Literacy(%)definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 92.6%
    male: 92.5%
    female: 92.7% (2000 census)

    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)(years)total: 12 years
    male: 11 years
    female: 12 years (2006)
    Education expenditures(% of GDP)2.5% of GDP (2005)

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