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Mexico Historical and Political Profile

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Mexico Index

  • Mexico-New Spain
  • Mexico-War with the United States, 1846 The Wars of Independence, 1810-21
  • Mexico-Nonfuel Mining Electricity
  • Mexico-Television
  • Mexico-Tourism
  • Mexico-Banking System Financial System
  • Mexico-Education
  • Mexico-Health Care and Social Security
  • Mexico-Army Organization of National Defense
  • Mexico-The Porfiriato, 1876-1910
  • Mexico-The Restoration, 1867-76
  • Mexico-Institutions of Civil Society
  • Mexico-Minor Opposition Parties
  • Mexico-The Maximato The Calles Presidency, 1924-28
  • Mexico-Tasks and Missions National Security Concerns
  • Mexico-Relations with the United States Foreign Relations
  • Mexico-Exchange Rate Stock Exchange
  • Mexico-Cardenismo and the Revolution Rekindled, 1934-40
  • Mexico-From Revolution to Governance, 1940-82
  • Mexico-Roads Transportation and Telecommunications
  • Mexico-Foreword
  • Mexico-Business Organizations Organized Labor
  • Mexico-Secretariat of the Navy Civic Action
  • Mexico-Government Agricultural Policy
  • Mexico-Direction of Trade Trade Balance
  • Mexico-Society under the Porfiriato Porfirian Modernization
  • Mexico-The Loss of Texas
  • Mexico-Mexico
  • Mexico-Prospects for the Future
  • Mexico-Reconciliation and Redistribution, 1970-76 Authoritarianism Unveiled, 1964-70
  • Mexico-Rural Defense Force Air Force
  • Mexico-The Spanish Conquest
  • Mexico-L�pez Mateos and the Return to Revolutionary Policies, 1958-64 The Ruiz Cortines Sexenio, 1952-58
  • Mexico-Social Security
  • Mexico-Economic Hardship The United States and the Crisis in Mexico
  • Mexico-Recruitment and Conscription Personnel
  • Mexico-Constitution of 1917
  • Mexico-Government Structure
  • Mexico-The Electoral Process The Electoral Process and Political Dynamics
  • Mexico-Chapter 3 - The Economy
  • Mexico-Growth and Structure of the Economy
  • Mexico-Land Tenure Agriculture
  • Mexico-Relations with Guatemala Relations with Cuba
  • Mexico-Centralism and the Caudillo State, 1836-55
  • Mexico-Interpersonal Relations
  • Mexico-Labor Unions Labor Legislation
  • Mexico-Geography
  • Mexico-Society
  • Mexico-Chapter 4 - Government and Politics
  • Mexico-The Military in Civilian Politics The Mexican Military in World War II
  • Mexico-Air Transportation Ports and Shipping
  • Mexico-The Bourbon Reforms The Road to Independence
  • Mexico-Chapter 1 - Historical Setting
  • Mexico-Preconquest Mexico
  • Mexico-Socioeconomic Structures Colonial Administration
  • Mexico-Postwar Economic Growth The Great Depression
  • Mexico-1982 Crisis and Recovery Deterioration in the 1970s
  • Mexico-Executive
  • Mexico-Imports Foreign Trade
  • Mexico-Capital Account Current Account
  • Mexico-Popular Beliefs Church-State Relations
  • Mexico-Environmental Conditions Climate
  • Mexico-Foreign Investment Regulation
  • Mexico-The Future of the Economy
  • Mexico-The Huerta Dictatorship Madero's Government
  • Mexico-Economy
  • Mexico-Social Spending Social Indicators
  • Mexico-Human Rights Concerns National Intelligence Agencies
  • Mexico-The Abortive Empire, 1821-23 Empire and Early Republic, 1821-55
  • Mexico -Country Profile
  • Mexico-Treaty Obligations United States Concerns
  • Mexico-The Passing of the Torch, 1987-88 Carlos Salinas de Gortari: Economic Liberalization, Political Indecision
  • Mexico-The Salinas Presidency: Reform and Retrenchment The 1988 Elections
  • Mexico-Introduction
  • Mexico-Civil War and the French Intervention The Revolution of Ayutla and the Reform Laws
  • Mexico-The Alem�n Sexenio, 1946-52 Ávila Camacho's Wartime Presidency, 1940-46
  • Mexico-The Media The Church
  • Mexico-Encomiendas
  • Mexico-The Aztec Ancient Mexico
  • Mexico-Urban Society
  • Mexico-Livestock Other Crops
  • Mexico-Constitutional and Legal Basis Armed Forces
  • Mexico-Security Concerns for the 1990s and Beyond Narcotics Trafficking
  • Mexico-Public Order and Internal Security
  • Mexico-Uniforms, Ranks, and Insignia
  • Mexico-Rapid Transit Railroads
  • Mexico
  • Mexico-Prison Conditions Criminal Justice System
  • Mexico-Democratic Revolutionary Party National Action Party
  • Mexico-Preface
  • Mexico-Defense Spending
  • Mexico-Domestic Defense Production
  • Mexico-Recovery and Relapse, 1976-82
  • Mexico-The Crisis Begins, 1982
  • Mexico-Local Government State Government
  • Mexico-Morbidity Patterns Mortality Patterns
  • Mexico-Chapter 2 - The Society and Its Environment
  • Mexico-Physical Setting
  • Mexico-Income Distribution
  • Mexico-Structure of Society
  • Mexico-Revolution and Aftermath Early Years
  • Mexico-Carranza's Presidency The Constitution of 1917
  • Mexico-Ethnicity and Language
  • Mexico-Population
  • Mexico-Fishing Forestry
  • Mexico-Petroleum
  • Mexico-Reform and French Intervention, 1855-67
  • Mexico-Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
  • Mexico-Inflation External Debt
  • Mexico-President Salinas
  • Mexico
  • Mexico-Institutional Revolutionary Party The Party System
  • Mexico-The Obreg�n Presidency, 1920-24 The Constructive Phase, 1920-40
  • Mexico
  • Mexico-Professionalization of the Armed Forces, 1920-46 The Military Phase of the Revolution, 1910-17
  • Mexico-Labor Force
  • Mexico
  • Mexico-Government and Politics
  • Mexico
  • Mexico-Manufacturing Industry
  • Mexico-Membership in International Organizations Relations with Other Latin American Countries
  • Mexico-Pay and Benefits Education and Training
  • Mexico-Radio Telecommunications
  • Mexico-Acknowledgments
  • Mexico-Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Grain Production
  • Mexico
  • Mexico-Religion
  • Mexico
  • Mexico-Construction
  • Mexico-Energy and Mining
  • Mexico
  • Mexico-Wars of Independence, 1810-21
  • Mexico-Iturbide and the Plan of Iguala Hidalgo and Morelos
  • Mexico-Police and Law Enforcement Organizations The Chiapas Rebellion
  • Mexico-Rural Society
  • Mexico-National Security
  • Mexico-Nineteenth-Century Constitutions Constitutional History
  • Mexico-Table A - Chronology of Important Events
  • Mexico-The de la Madrid Sexenio, 1982-88 To the Brink and Back, 1982-88
  • Mexico-Chapter 5 - National Security
  • Mexico-History and Traditions of the Armed Forces
  • Mexico-Judicial Legislative
  • Mexico-The Federalist Republic, 1824-36
  • Mexico-Balance of Payments
  • BackgroundThe site of advanced Amerindian civilizations, Mexico came under Spanish rule for three centuries before achieving independence early in the 19th century. A devaluation of the peso in late 1994 threw Mexico into economic turmoil, triggering the worst recession in over half a century. The nation had been making an impressive recovery until the global financial crisis hit in late 2008. Ongoing economic and social concerns include low real wages, underemployment for a large segment of the population, inequitable income distribution, and few advancement opportunities for the largely Amerindian population in the impoverished southern states. The elections held in 2000 marked the first time since the 1910 Mexican Revolution that an opposition candidate - Vicente FOX of the National Action Party (PAN) - defeated the party in government, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). He was succeeded in 2006 by another PAN candidate Felipe CALDERON. In January 2009, Mexico assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2009-10 term.
    LocationMiddle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, between Belize and the United States and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and the United States
    Area(sq km)total: 1,964,375 sq km
    land: 1,943,945 sq km
    water: 20,430 sq km
    Geographic coordinates23 00 N, 102 00 W
    Land boundaries(km)total: 4,353 km
    border countries: Belize 250 km, Guatemala 962 km, US 3,141 km

    Coastline(km)9,330 km

    Climatevaries from tropical to desert

    Elevation extremes(m)lowest point: Laguna Salada -10 m
    highest point: Volcan Pico de Orizaba 5,700 m
    Natural resourcespetroleum, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timber
    Land use(%)arable land: 12.66%
    permanent crops: 1.28%
    other: 86.06% (2005)

    Irrigated land(sq km)63,200 sq km (2003)
    Total renewable water resources(cu km)457.2 cu km (2000)
    Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)total: 78.22 cu km/yr (17%/5%/77%)
    per capita: 731 cu m/yr (2000)
    Natural hazardstsunamis along the Pacific coast, volcanoes and destructive earthquakes in the center and south, and hurricanes on the Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean coasts
    Environment - current issuesscarcity of hazardous waste disposal facilities; rural to urban migration; natural fresh water resources scarce and polluted in north, inaccessible and poor quality in center and extreme southeast; raw sewage and industrial effluents polluting rivers in urban areas; deforestation; widespread erosion; desertification; deteriorating agricultural lands; serious air and water pollution in the national capital and urban centers along US-Mexico border; land subsidence in Valley of Mexico caused by groundwater depletion
    note: the government considers the lack of clean water and deforestation national security issues
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - notestrategic location on southern border of US; corn (maize), one of the world's major grain crops, is thought to have originated in Mexico
    Population111,211,789 (July 2009 est.)
    Age structure(%)0-14 years: 29.1% (male 16,544,223/female 15,861,141)
    15-64 years: 64.6% (male 34,734,571/female 37,129,793)
    65 years and over: 6.2% (male 3,130,518/female 3,811,543) (2009 est.)
    Median age(years)total: 26.3 years
    male: 25.3 years
    female: 27.3 years (2009 est.)
    Population growth rate(%)1.13% (2009 est.)
    Birth rate(births/1,000 population)19.71 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
    Death rate(deaths/1,000 population)4.8 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

    Net migration rate(migrant(s)/1,000 population)-3.61 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
    Urbanization(%)urban population: 77% of total population (2008)
    rate of urbanization: 1.5% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
    Sex ratio(male(s)/female)at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
    Infant mortality rate(deaths/1,000 live births)total: 18.42 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 20.3 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 16.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

    Life expectancy at birth(years)total population: 76.06 years
    male: 73.25 years
    female: 79 years (2009 est.)

    Total fertility rate(children born/woman)2.34 children born/woman (2009 est.)
    Nationalitynoun: Mexican(s)
    adjective: Mexican
    Ethnic groups(%)mestizo (Amerindian-Spanish) 60%, Amerindian or predominantly Amerindian 30%, white 9%, other 1%

    Religions(%)Roman Catholic 76.5%, Protestant 6.3% (Pentecostal 1.4%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1.1%, other 3.8%), other 0.3%, unspecified 13.8%, none 3.1% (2000 census)
    Languages(%)Spanish only 92.7%, Spanish and indigenous languages 5.7%, indigenous only 0.8%, unspecified 0.8%; note - indigenous languages include various Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional languages (2005)

    Country nameconventional long form: United Mexican States
    conventional short form: Mexico
    local long form: Estados Unidos Mexicanos
    local short form: Mexico
    Government typefederal republic
    Capitalname: Mexico City (Distrito Federal)
    geographic coordinates: 19 26 N, 99 08 W
    time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in April; ends last Sunday in October
    note: Mexico is divided into three time zones
    Administrative divisions31 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila de Zaragoza, Colima, Distrito Federal*, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan de Ocampo, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro de Arteaga, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz-Llave, Yucatan, Zacatecas

    Legal systemmixture of US constitutional theory and civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

    Suffrage18 years of age; universal and compulsory (but not enforced)
    Executive branchchief of state: President Felipe de Jesus CALDERON Hinojosa (since 1 December 2006); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Felipe de Jesus CALDERON Hinojosa (since 1 December 2006)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president; note - appointment of attorney general requires consent of the Senate
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a single six-year term; election last held on 2 July 2006 (next to be held 1 July 2012)
    election results: Felipe CALDERON elected president; percent of vote - Felipe CALDERON 35.89%, Andres Manuel LOPEZ OBRADOR 35.31%, Roberto MADRAZO 22.26%, other 6.54%

    Legislative branchbicameral National Congress or Congreso de la Union consists of the Senate or Camara de Senadores (128 seats; 96 members are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms, and 32 seats are allocated on the basis of each party's popular vote) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (500 seats; 300 members are elected by popular vote; remaining 200 members are allocated on the basis of each party's popular vote; to serve three-year terms)
    elections: Senate - last held 2 July 2006 for all of the seats (next to be held 1 July 2012); Chamber of Deputies - last held 5 July 2009 (next to be held 1 July 2012)
    election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PAN 52, PRI 33, PRD 26, PVEM 6, CD 5, PT 5, independent 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PRI 237, PAN 143, PRD 72, PVEM 21, PT 13, CD 6, other 8

    Judicial branchSupreme Court of Justice or Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nacion (justices or ministros are appointed by the president with consent of the Senate)

    Political pressure groups and leadersBroad Progressive Front or FAP; Businessmen's Coordinating Council or CCE; Confederation of Employers of the Mexican Republic or COPARMEX; Confederation of Industrial Chambers or CONCAMIN; Confederation of Mexican Workers or CTM; Confederation of National Chambers of Commerce or CONCANACO; Coordinator for Foreign Trade Business Organizations or COECE; Federation of Unions Providing Goods and Services or FESEBES; National Chamber of Transformation Industries or CANACINTRA; National Peasant Confederation or CNC; National Small Business Chamber or CANACOPE; National Syndicate of Education Workers or SNTE; National Union of Workers or UNT; Popular Assembly of the People of Oaxaca or APPO; Roman Catholic Church
    International organization participationAPEC, BCIE, BIS, CAN (observer), Caricom (observer), CDB, CE (observer), CSN (observer), EBRD, FAO, G-20, G-3, G-15, G-24, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA, MIGA, NAFTA, NAM (observer), NEA, OAS, OECD, OPANAL, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, RG, SICA (observer), UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNASUR (observer), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Flag descriptionthree equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; the coat of arms (an eagle with a snake in its beak perched on a cactus) is centered in the white band

    Economy - overviewMexico has a free market economy in the trillion dollar class. It contains a mixture of modern and outmoded industry and agriculture, increasingly dominated by the private sector. Recent administrations have expanded competition in seaports, railroads, telecommunications, electricity generation, natural gas distribution, and airports. Per capita income is roughly one-third that of the US; income distribution remains highly unequal. Trade with the US and Canada has nearly tripled since the implementation of NAFTA in 1994. Mexico has 12 free trade agreements with over 40 countries including, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, the European Free Trade Area, and Japan, putting more than 90% of trade under free trade agreements. In 2007, during its first year in office, the Felipe CALDERON administration was able to garner support from the opposition to successfully pass a pension and a fiscal reform. The administration continues to face many economic challenges including the need to upgrade infrastructure, modernize labor laws, and allow private investment in the energy sector. CALDERON has stated that his top economic priorities remain reducing poverty and creating jobs.
    GDP (purchasing power parity)$1.567 trillion (2008 est.)
    $1.547 trillion (2007 est.)
    $1.498 trillion (2006 est.)
    note: data are in 2008 US dollars
    GDP (official exchange rate)$1.088 trillion (2008 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate(%)1.3% (2008 est.)
    3.3% (2007 est.)
    5.1% (2006 est.)
    GDP - per capita (PPP)$14,300 (2008 est.)
    $14,200 (2007 est.)
    $13,900 (2006 est.)
    note: data are in 2008 US dollars
    GDP - composition by sector(%)agriculture: 3.8%
    industry: 35.2%
    services: 61% (2008 est.)
    Labor force45.32 million (2008 est.)

    Labor force - by occupation(%)agriculture: 15.1%
    industry: 25.7%
    services: 59% (2005)
    Unemployment rate(%)4% (2008 est.)
    3.7% (2007 est.)
    note: underemployment is perhaps 25%
    Population below poverty line(%)13.8% using food-based definition of poverty; asset based poverty amounted to more than 40% (2006)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share(%)lowest 10%: 1.8%
    highest 10%: 37.9% (2006)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index47.9 (2006)
    53.1 (1998)
    Investment (gross fixed)(% of GDP)22.1% of GDP (2008 est.)
    Budgetrevenues: $257.1 billion
    expenditures: $258.1 billion (2008 est.)
    Inflation rate (consumer prices)(%)5.1% (2008 est.)
    4% (2007 est.)

    Stock of money$92.34 billion (31 December 2008)
    $103.5 billion (31 December 2007)
    Stock of quasi money$147.4 billion (31 December 2008)
    $168.4 billion (31 December 2007)
    Stock of domestic credit$287 billion (31 December 2008)
    $349.1 billion (31 December 2007)
    Market value of publicly traded shares$232.6 billion (31 December 2008)
    $397.7 billion (31 December 2007)
    $348.3 billion (31 December 2006)
    Economic aid - recipient$189.4 million (2005)

    Public debt(% of GDP)35.8% of GDP (2008 est.)
    23.5% of GDP (2004 est.)
    Agriculture - productscorn, wheat, soybeans, rice, beans, cotton, coffee, fruit, tomatoes; beef, poultry, dairy products; wood products
    Industriesfood and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, tourism

    Industrial production growth rate(%)-0.7% (2008 est.)

    Current account balance-$15.81 billion (2008 est.)
    -$8.331 billion (2007 est.)
    Exports$291.3 billion (2008 est.)
    $271.9 billion (2007 est.)

    Exports - commodities(%)manufactured goods, oil and oil products, silver, fruits, vegetables, coffee, cotton
    Exports - partners(%)US 80.2%, Canada 2.4%, Germany 1.7% (2008)
    Imports$308.6 billion (2008 est.)
    $281.9 billion (2007 est.)

    Imports - commodities(%)metalworking machines, steel mill products, agricultural machinery, electrical equipment, car parts for assembly, repair parts for motor vehicles, aircraft, and aircraft parts
    Imports - partners(%)US 49%, China 11.2%, Japan 5.3%, South Korea 4.4%, Germany 4.1% (2008)

    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$95.3 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
    $87.19 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
    Debt - external$200.4 billion (31 December 2008)
    $193.1 billion (31 December 2007)

    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$289.8 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
    $267.8 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$45.39 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
    $44.7 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
    Exchange ratesMexican pesos (MXN) per US dollar - 11.016 (2008 est.), 10.8 (2007), 10.899 (2006), 10.898 (2005), 11.286 (2004)

    Currency (code)Mexican peso (MXN)

    Telephones - main lines in use20.539 million (2008)
    Telephones - mobile cellular75.304 million (2008)
    Telephone systemgeneral assessment: adequate telephone service for business and government, but the population is poorly served; mobile subscribers far outnumber fixed-line subscribers; domestic satellite system with 120 earth stations; extensive microwave radio relay network; considerable use of fiber-optic cable and coaxial cable
    domestic: low telephone density with about 19 fixed lines per 100 persons; privatized in December 1990; despite the opening to competition in January 1997, Telmex remains dominant; legal challenges to Telmex's alleged anti-competitive behavior in the mobile and fixed-line markets culminated in a World Trade Organization ruling in 2004 against Mexico prompting some strengthening of the powers granted Mexico's telecom regulator; mobile cellular teledensity approaching 70 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 52; Columbus-2 fiber-optic submarine cable with access to the US, Virgin Islands, Canary Islands, Spain, and Italy; the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) and the MAYA-1 submarine cable system together provide access to Central America, parts of South America and the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth stations - 120 (32 Intelsat, 2 Solidaridad (giving Mexico improved access to South America, Central America, and much of the US as well as enhancing domestic communications), 1 Panamsat, numerous Inmarsat mobile earth stations); linked to Central American Microwave System of trunk connections (2008)
    Internet country code.mx
    Internet users23.26 million (2008)
    Airports1,744 (2009)
    Pipelines(km)gas 22,705 km; liquid petroleum gas 1,875 km; oil 8,688 km; oil/gas/water 228 km; refined products 6,520 km (2006)
    Roadways(km)total: 356,945 km
    paved: 178,473 km (includes 6,279 km of expressways)
    unpaved: 178,472 km (2006)

    Ports and terminalsAltamira, Coatzacoalcos, Manzanillo, Morro Redondo, Salina Cruz, Tampico, Veracruz
    Military branchesSecretariat of National Defense (Secretaria de Defensa Nacional, Sedena): Army (Ejercito, includes Mexican Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Mexicana, FAM)); Secretariat of the Navy (Secretaria de Marina, Semar): Mexican Navy (Armada de Mexico, ARM, includes Naval Air Force (FAN) and naval infantry) (2009)
    Military service age and obligation(years of age)18 years of age for compulsory military service, conscript service obligation - 12 months; 16 years of age with consent for voluntary enlistment; conscripts serve only in the Army; Navy and Air Force service is all voluntary; women are eligible for voluntary military service (2007)
    Manpower available for military servicemales age 16-49: 27,774,688
    females age 16-49: 29,376,791 (2008 est.)
    Manpower fit for military servicemales age 16-49: 22,541,654
    females age 16-49: 25,149,027 (2009 est.)
    Manpower reaching militarily significant age annuallymale: 1,109,981
    female: 1,072,094 (2009 est.)
    Military expenditures(% of GDP)0.5% of GDP (2006 est.)
    Disputes - internationalabundant rainfall in recent years along much of the Mexico-US border region has ameliorated periodically strained water-sharing arrangements; the US has intensified security measures to monitor and control legal and illegal personnel, transport, and commodities across its border with Mexico; Mexico must deal with thousands of impoverished Guatemalans and other Central Americans who cross the porous border looking for work in Mexico and the United States

    Refugees and internally displaced personsIDPs: 5,500-10,000 (government's quashing of Zapatista uprising in 1994 in eastern Chiapas Region) (2007)
    Electricity - production(kWh)245 billion kWh (2008 est.)
    Electricity - production by source(%)fossil fuel: 78.7%
    hydro: 14.2%
    nuclear: 4.2%
    other: 2.9% (2001)
    Electricity - consumption(kWh)200.9 billion kWh (2007 est.)
    Electricity - exports(kWh)1.288 billion kWh (2008 est.)
    Electricity - imports(kWh)584 million kWh (2008 est.)
    Oil - production(bbl/day)3.186 million bbl/day (2008 est.)
    Oil - consumption(bbl/day)2.128 million bbl/day (2008 est.)
    Oil - exports(bbl/day)1.986 million bbl/day (2008 est.)
    Oil - imports(bbl/day)479,600 bbl/day (2008 est.)
    Oil - proved reserves(bbl)10.5 billion bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
    Natural gas - production(cu m)52.15 billion cu m (2008 est.)
    Natural gas - consumption(cu m)66.88 billion cu m (2008 est.)
    Natural gas - exports(cu m)1.136 billion cu m (2008)
    Natural gas - proved reserves(cu m)372.7 billion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate(%)0.3% (2007 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS200,000 (2007 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - deaths11,000 (2007 est.)
    Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: intermediate
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne disease: dengue fever
    water contact disease: leptospirosis (2009)
    Literacy(%)definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 91%
    male: 92.4%
    female: 89.6% (2004 est.)

    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)(years)total: 13 years
    male: 14 years
    female: 13 years (2006)
    Education expenditures(% of GDP)5.5% of GDP (2005)

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