Mongabay.com seeks to raise interest in and appreciation of wild lands and wildlife, while examining the impact of emerging trends in climate, technology, economics, and finance on conservation and development (more)
Highways: In 1994, about 189,000 kilometers of roads,
of which 108,000 kilometers gravel or paved. Road transport declining
element of economic infrastructure; maintenance and truck fleet inadequate
to expand service.
Railroads: Three railroad companies provide about 90
percent of national freight haulage, but infrastructure and equipment
supply unreliable. In 1993, system had 14,148 kilometers of track, of
which 3,050 kilometers electrified, concentrated in north, mainly
connecting with Russian system.
Civil Aviation: Kazakstan Airlines and six private
companies use twenty airports, one of which (Almaty) has international
con-nections. Regular flights to some major cities in CIS countries,
Western Europe, Asia, and Middle East.
Inland Waterways: Two rivers, Syrdariya and Ertis,
total 4,000 kilometers of navigable water; nineteen river transport
com-panies, under state control. In 1992, 1.6 million passengers, 7
million tons of freight moved.
Ports: On Caspian Sea, Aqtau, Atyrau, and Fort
Shevchenko, with limited commercial value.
Pipelines: In 1992, some 3,480 kilometers for natural
gas, 2,850 kilometers for crude oil, and 1,500 kilometers for refined
products. Systems mainly connected with Russian lines to north; new lines
in planning stage, 1996, with Western aid, to connect with Europe and
other international destinations.
Telecommunications: Limited service, inadequate to
planned economic expansion. In 1994, seventeen of 100 urban citizens had
telephones, heavily concentrated in Almaty. Most equip-ment outmoded,
overburdened. All international connections through Moscow. Radio and
television broadcasting govern-ment controlled; satellite television
broadcasts from other countries; sixty-one domestic radio stations, one
domestic tele-vision network, 1996.
Data as of March 1996