Mongabay.com seeks to raise interest in and appreciation of wild lands and wildlife, while examining the impact of emerging trends in climate, technology, economics, and finance on conservation and development (more)
Gross National Product (GNP): Estimated 1993 at
US$26.5 billion, or US$1,530 per capita. In 1994 estimated growth rate
-25.4 percent. In early 1990s, growth hindered by Soviet-era
specialization and centralization, slow privatization.
Agriculture: Large-scale misallocation of land in
Soviet Virgin Lands program, emphasizing cultivation over livestock,
con-tinues to distort land use. Main crops wheat, cotton, and rice; main
livestock products meat and milk. State farms continue to dominate, 1996;
land privatization minimal.
Industry and Mining: Outmoded heavy industry
infrastructure inherited from Soviet era, specializing in chemicals,
machinery, oil refining, and metallurgy; coal, iron ore, manganese,
phosphates, and various other minerals mined. Some light industry.
Industrial productivity hampered by lost markets and enterprise debt.
Energy: Plentiful reserves of oil, coal, and natural
gas make energy production dominant industrial sector. Offshore Caspian
Sea fields, in early production stages, have huge capacity; extraction
expanding with Western investment and new pipeline project. Natural gas
fields, notably Karachaganak, will expand output in later 1990s.
Thermoelectric power plants, main source of power, fueled by lignite
mines. Kazakstan remains net importer of energy and fuel, 1995.
Exports: Mainly raw materials: metals, oil and
petroleum products, chemicals, worth US$3.08 billion in 1994; share of
bartered goods, substantial in early 1990s, smaller in 1995 and mainly
with Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) partners. Cash sales to CIS
partners increased substantially in 1995, partially replacing barter.
Export structure shifting steadily to non-CIS partners, mid-1990s, as
Western oil sales increase; non-CIS expansion needed to balance imports
for industrial restructuring.
Imports: In 1994, worth US$3.49 billion, mainly energy
products, machinery, vehicles, chemicals, and food. Industrial machinery
and technology imports will increase, energy products decrease, in late
1990s. Trade deficits with both CIS and non-CIS groups, 1994. Main trading
partners Russia, Ukraine, Germany, Netherlands, Switzerland, Czech
Republic, Italy, and China.
Balance of Payments: In 1994, deficit of US$2.5
Exchange Rate: Tenge introduced November 1993 when
Kazakstan left ruble zone. Exchange rate sixty-four to US$1, January 1996.
Inflation: Hyperinflation, 1993 and 1994, brought
under better control with tightened loan policy; estimated 1995 annual
rate 190 percent.
Fiscal Year: Calendar year.
Fiscal Policy: Centralized system; fundamental
streamlining of tax code, 1995, emphasizing taxation of individuals over
taxation of enterprises. Targeted 1995 budget shortfall 3.5 percent of
gross domestic product (GDP).
Data as of March 1996