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Ivory Coast Historical and Political Profile

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Ivory Coast Index

  • Ivory Coast-Other Minerals
  • Ivory Coast-Tenure
  • Ivory Coast-Problems in Education
  • Ivory Coast-East Atlantic Cultures
  • Ivory Coast-Lagoon Cultures
  • Ivory Coast-Relations with France
  • Ivory Coast-Telecommunications
  • Ivory Coast-Voltaic Cultures
  • Ivory Coast-Secondary Education
  • Ivory Coast-Elites
  • Ivory Coast-Ethnic Diversity ETHNIC GROUPS AND LANGUAGES
  • Ivory Coast-INTRODUCTION
  • Ivory Coast-Social Problems
  • Ivory Coast-Higher Education
  • Ivory Coast-Public Response: "Psychose Sécuritaire"
  • Ivory Coast-The Southern Mandé
  • Ivory Coast-Party Organization
  • Ivory Coast-Crime and Punishment
  • Ivory Coast-Chapter 3 - The Economy
  • Ivory Coast-Constitutional, Legal, and Administrative Structure
  • Ivory Coast-Roads
  • Ivory Coast-Incidence and Trends in Crime
  • Ivory Coast-Relations and the Council of the Entente
  • Ivory Coast-Party Decentralization
  • Ivory Coast-Other Energy Sources
  • Ivory Coast-Growing Economic Problems ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL ISSUES OF THE LATE 1970s AND 1980s
  • Ivory Coast-The Constitution FORMAL POWER
  • Ivory Coast-Relations with Israel
  • Ivory Coast-Discontent on Campus
  • Ivory Coast-The Military in National Perspective
  • Ivory Coast-Syncretic Religions
  • Ivory Coast-Repression and Conquest
  • Ivory Coast-Rivers
  • Ivory Coast-Foreign Influences
  • Ivory Coast-National Debt
  • Ivory Coast-Chapter 1 - Historical Setting
  • Ivory Coast-Natural Gas
  • Ivory Coast-AGRICULTURE
  • Ivory Coast-The National Assembly
  • Ivory Coast-Defense Mission and National Policy
  • Ivory Coast-EDUCATION
  • Ivory Coast-LABOR
  • Ivory Coast-Cocoa
  • Ivory Coast-Succession Question
  • Ivory Coast-Relations with the Soviet Union and China
  • Ivory Coast-Teachers
  • Ivory Coast-GEOGRAPHY
  • Ivory Coast-Electricity ENERGY
  • Ivory Coast-Civil Rights
  • Ivory Coast-Military
  • Ivory Coast-Language Diversity
  • Ivory Coast-Food Crops
  • Ivory Coast-Primary Education
  • Ivory Coast-Banking and Finance
  • Ivory Coast-Fisheries
  • Ivory Coast-Petroleum EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES
  • Ivory Coast-Chapter 4 - Government and Politics
  • Ivory Coast-Land Use
  • Ivory Coast -COUNTRY PROFILE
  • Ivory Coast-Other Sources of Discontent
  • Ivory Coast-French Union
  • Ivory Coast-Foreign Assistance
  • Ivory Coast-Local Religions
  • Ivory Coast-Social Attitudes
  • Ivory Coast-Changes in Government and Party Structures
  • Ivory Coast-Climate
  • Ivory Coast-Human Rights
  • Ivory Coast-Physical Features
  • Ivory Coast-Colonial Administration
  • Ivory Coast-Training
  • Ivory Coast-The Role of Women
  • Ivory Coast-Judicial System
  • Ivory Coast-The Party ACTUAL POWER
  • Ivory Coast-Composition
  • Ivory Coast-Foreword
  • Ivory Coast-Lineage Patterns
  • Ivory Coast-Orientation Toward the Political System
  • Ivory Coast-Relations with Other African States
  • Ivory Coast-West Atlantic Cultures
  • Ivory Coast-Animal Husbandry
  • Ivory Coast-Regional Political Cooperation
  • Ivory Coast-Succession
  • Ivory Coast-Local Government
  • Ivory Coast-Budget
  • Ivory Coast-Relations with Ghana, Burkina Faso, Guinea, and Mali
  • Ivory Coast-Criminal Justice System
  • Ivory Coast-Public Investment
  • Ivory Coast-Railroads
  • Ivory Coast-Government Responses
  • Ivory Coast-Mandé Cultures
  • Ivory Coast-The Economic and Social Council
  • Ivory Coast-Urban Society
  • Ivory Coast-Air Transport
  • Ivory Coast-Diversification Crops
  • Ivory Coast-The Forest Region
  • Ivory Coast
  • Ivory Coast-The Savanna
  • Ivory Coast-Religions of the North
  • Ivory Coast-The Levantine Community
  • Ivory Coast-ARMED FORCES
  • Ivory Coast-Recruitment and Conditions of Service
  • Ivory Coast-Local Resistance and Establishment of Protectorates
  • Ivory Coast-SOCIETY
  • Ivory Coast-Ports and Maritime Shipping
  • Ivory Coast-Students and Intellectuals
  • Ivory Coast
  • Ivory Coast-Sources of Popular Discontent
  • Ivory Coast-Labor Unions
  • Ivory Coast-Christianity
  • Ivory Coast
  • Ivory Coast-The French
  • Ivory Coast-Location and Size PHYSICAL SETTING
  • Ivory Coast-ECONOMY
  • Ivory Coast-POPULATION
  • Ivory Coast
  • Ivory Coast-Chapter 2 - The Society and Its Environment
  • Ivory Coast-Ivoirianization
  • Ivory Coast-Domestic Security
  • Ivory Coast-Foreigners
  • Ivory Coast-Internal Security Organization and Forces
  • Ivory Coast-Police Response to Increased Crime
  • Ivory Coast-Relations with the United States
  • Ivory Coast-Economic Development and Social Change
  • Ivory Coast-The Education System
  • Ivory Coast-Early Development
  • Ivory Coast-Evolution of Colonial Policy FRENCH RULE UNTIL WORLD WAR II
  • Ivory Coast-PREFACE
  • Ivory Coast-Equity Issues and Ethnic Tensions
  • Ivory Coast-World Religions
  • Ivory Coast-Chapter 5 - National Security
  • Ivory Coast-Coffee
  • Ivory Coast-National Service and Veterans Groups
  • Ivory Coast-Interest and Investment Policies
  • Ivory Coast-Consolidation of Power in the 1960s and 1970s
  • Ivory Coast-Timber
  • Ivory Coast-Social Programs
  • Ivory Coast-Distribution
  • Ivory Coast
  • Ivory Coast-The Executive
  • Ivory Coast-Interest Groups
  • Ivory Coast-The Stock Exchange
  • BackgroundClose ties to France since independence in 1960, the development of cocoa production for export, and foreign investment made Cote d'Ivoire one of the most prosperous of the West African states, but did not protect it from political turmoil. In December 1999, a military coup - the first ever in Cote d'Ivoire's history - overthrew the government. Junta leader Robert GUEI blatantly rigged elections held in late 2000 and declared himself the winner. Popular protest forced him to step aside and brought Laurent GBAGBO into power. Ivorian dissidents and disaffected members of the military launched a failed coup attempt in September 2002. Rebel forces claimed the northern half of the country, and in January 2003 were granted ministerial positions in a unity government under the auspices of the Linas-Marcoussis Peace Accord. President GBAGBO and rebel forces resumed implementation of the peace accord in December 2003 after a three-month stalemate, but issues that sparked the civil war, such as land reform and grounds for citizenship, remained unresolved. In March 2007 President GBAGBO and former New Force rebel leader Guillaume SORO signed the Ouagadougou Political Agreement. As a result of the agreement, SORO joined GBAGBO's government as Prime Minister and the two agreed to reunite the country by dismantling the zone of confidence separating North from South, integrate rebel forces into the national armed forces, and hold elections. Disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration of rebel forces have been problematic as rebels seek to enter the armed forces. Citizen identification and voter registration pose election difficulties, and balloting planned for November 2009 was postponed with no future date set. Several thousand UN troops and several hundred French remain in Cote d'Ivoire to help the parties implement their commitments and to support the peace process.
    LocationWestern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Ghana and Liberia
    Area(sq km)total: 322,463 sq km
    land: 318,003 sq km
    water: 4,460 sq km
    Geographic coordinates8 00 N, 5 00 W
    Land boundaries(km)total: 3,110 km
    border countries: Burkina Faso 584 km, Ghana 668 km, Guinea 610 km, Liberia 716 km, Mali 532 km

    Coastline(km)515 km

    Climatetropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three seasons - warm and dry (November to March), hot and dry (March to May), hot and wet (June to October)

    Elevation extremes(m)lowest point: Gulf of Guinea 0 m
    highest point: Mont Nimba 1,752 m
    Natural resourcespetroleum, natural gas, diamonds, manganese, iron ore, cobalt, bauxite, copper, gold, nickel, tantalum, silica sand, clay, cocoa beans, coffee, palm oil, hydropower
    Land use(%)arable land: 10.23%
    permanent crops: 11.16%
    other: 78.61% (2005)

    Irrigated land(sq km)730 sq km (2003)
    Total renewable water resources(cu km)81 cu km (2001)
    Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)total: 0.93 cu km/yr (24%/12%/65%)
    per capita: 51 cu m/yr (2000)
    Natural hazardscoast has heavy surf and no natural harbors; during the rainy season torrential flooding is possible
    Environment - current issuesdeforestation (most of the country's forests - once the largest in West Africa - have been heavily logged); water pollution from sewage and industrial and agricultural effluents
    Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - notemost of the inhabitants live along the sandy coastal region; apart from the capital area, the forested interior is sparsely populated
    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2009 est.)
    Age structure(%)0-14 years: 40.6% (male 4,215,912/female 4,146,077)
    15-64 years: 56.6% (male 5,942,642/female 5,720,108)
    65 years and over: 2.9% (male 296,074/female 296,255) (2009 est.)
    Median age(years)total: 19.2 years
    male: 19.4 years
    female: 19.1 years (2009 est.)
    Population growth rate(%)2.133% (2009 est.)
    Birth rate(births/1,000 population)32.11 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
    Death rate(deaths/1,000 population)10.78 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

    Net migration rate(migrant(s)/1,000 population)NA (2009 est.)
    Urbanization(%)urban population: 49% of total population (2008)
    rate of urbanization: 3.2% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
    Sex ratio(male(s)/female)at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
    under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 1 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
    Infant mortality rate(deaths/1,000 live births)total: 68.06 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 75.17 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 60.73 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

    Life expectancy at birth(years)total population: 55.45 years
    male: 54.64 years
    female: 56.28 years (2009 est.)

    Total fertility rate(children born/woman)4.12 children born/woman (2009 est.)
    Nationalitynoun: Ivoirian(s)
    adjective: Ivoirian
    Ethnic groups(%)Akan 42.1%, Voltaiques or Gur 17.6%, Northern Mandes 16.5%, Krous 11%, Southern Mandes 10%, other 2.8% (includes 130,000 Lebanese and 14,000 French) (1998)

    Religions(%)Muslim 38.6%, Christian 32.8%, indigenous 11.9%, none 16.7% (2008 est.)
    note: the majority of foreigners (migratory workers) are Muslim (70%) and Christian (20%)
    Languages(%)French (official), 60 native dialects with Dioula the most widely spoken

    Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Cote d'Ivoire
    conventional short form: Cote d'Ivoire
    local long form: Republique de Cote d'Ivoire
    local short form: Cote d'Ivoire
    note: pronounced coat-div-whar
    former: Ivory Coast
    Government typerepublic; multiparty presidential regime established 1960
    note: the government is currently operating under a power-sharing agreement mandated by international mediators
    Capitalname: Yamoussoukro
    geographic coordinates: 6 49 N, 5 17 W
    time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    note: although Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983, Abidjan remains the commercial and administrative center; the US, like other countries, maintains its Embassy in Abidjan
    Administrative divisions19 regions; Agneby, Bafing, Bas-Sassandra, Denguele, Dix-Huit Montagnes, Fromager, Haut-Sassandra, Lacs, Lagunes, Marahoue, Moyen-Cavally, Moyen-Comoe, N'zi-Comoe, Savanes, Sud-Bandama, Sud-Comoe, Vallee du Bandama, Worodougou, Zanzan
    Constitutionapproved by referendum 23 July 2000

    Legal systembased on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review in the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

    Suffrage18 years of age; universal
    Executive branchchief of state: President Laurent GBAGBO (since 26 October 2000)
    head of government: Prime Minister Guillaume SORO (since 4 April 2007)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - under the current power-sharing agreement the prime minister and the president share the authority to appoint ministers
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held 26 October 2000 (next to be held 29 November 2009 after being repeatedly postponed by the government; the UN Security Council has extended the government's mandate); prime minister appointed by the president
    election results: Laurent GBAGBO elected president; percent of vote - Laurent GBAGBO 59.4%, Robert GUEI 32.7%, Francis WODIE 5.7%, other 2.2%

    Legislative branchunicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (225 seats; members are elected in single- and multi-district elections by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms)
    elections: elections last held 10 December 2000 with by-elections on 14 January 2001 (elections originally scheduled for 2005 have been repeatedly postponed by the government)
    election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FPI 96, PDCI-RDA 94, RDR 5, PIT 4, other 2, independents 22, vacant 2
    note: a Senate was scheduled to be created in October 2006 elections that never took place

    Judicial branchSupreme Court or Cour Supreme consists of four chambers: Judicial Chamber for criminal cases, Audit Chamber for financial cases, Constitutional Chamber for judicial review cases, and Administrative Chamber for civil cases; there is no legal limit to the number of members

    Political pressure groups and leadersFederation of University and High School Students of Cote d'Ivoire or FESCI [Serges KOFFI]; Rally of Houphouetists for Democracy and Peace or RHDP [Alphonse DJEDJE MADY]; Young Patriots [Charles BLE GOUDE]
    International organization participationACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Flag descriptionthree equal vertical bands of orange (hoist side), white, and green
    note: similar to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and has the colors reversed - green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of Italy, which is green (hoist side), white, and red; design was based on the flag of France

    Economy - overviewCote d'Ivoire is the world's largest producer and exporter of cocoa beans and a significant producer and exporter of coffee and palm oil. Consequently, the economy is highly sensitive to fluctuations in international prices for these products, and, to a lesser extent, in climatic conditions. Despite government attempts to diversify the economy, it is still heavily dependent on agriculture and related activities, engaging roughly 68% of the population. Since 2006, oil and gas production have become more important engines of economic activity than cocoa. According to IMF statistics, earnings from oil and refined products were $1.3 billion in 2006, while cocoa-related revenues were $1 billion during the same period. Cote d'Ivoire's offshore oil and gas production has resulted in substantial crude oil exports and provides sufficient natural gas to fuel electricity exports to Ghana, Togo, Benin, Mali and Burkina Faso. Oil exploration by a number of consortiums of private companies continues offshore, and President GBAGBO has expressed hope that daily crude output could reach 200,000 barrels per day (b/d) by the end of the decade. Since the end of the civil war in 2003, political turmoil has continued to damage the economy, resulting in the loss of foreign investment and slow economic growth. GDP grew by nearly 2% in 2007 and 3% in 2008. Per capita income has declined by 15% since 1999.
    GDP (purchasing power parity)$34.12 billion (2008 est.)
    $33.36 billion (2007 est.)
    $32.79 billion (2006 est.)
    note: data are in 2008 US dollars
    GDP (official exchange rate)$23.51 billion (2008 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate(%)2.3% (2008 est.)
    1.7% (2007 est.)
    0.7% (2006 est.)
    GDP - per capita (PPP)$1,700 (2008 est.)
    $1,700 (2007 est.)
    $1,700 (2006 est.)
    note: data are in 2008 US dollars
    GDP - composition by sector(%)agriculture: 28%
    industry: 21.6%
    services: 50.4% (2008 est.)
    Labor force7.346 million (68% agricultural) (2008 est.)

    Labor force - by occupation(%)agriculture: 68%
    industry and services: NA (2007 est.)
    Unemployment rate(%)note: unemployment may have climbed to 40-50% as a result of the civil war
    Population below poverty line(%)42% (2006 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share(%)lowest 10%: 2%
    highest 10%: 34% (2002)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index44.6 (2002)
    36.7 (1995)
    Investment (gross fixed)(% of GDP)9.5% of GDP (2008 est.)
    Budgetrevenues: $4.823 billion
    expenditures: $4.915 billion (2008 est.)
    Inflation rate (consumer prices)(%)6.3% (2008 est.)
    1.9% (2007 est.)

    Stock of money$NA (31 December 2008)
    $4.451 billion (31 December 2007)
    Stock of quasi money$NA (31 December 2008)
    $1.915 billion (31 December 2007)
    Stock of domestic credit$NA (31 December 2008)
    $4.404 billion (31 December 2007)
    Market value of publicly traded shares$7.071 billion (31 December 2008)
    $8.353 billion (31 December 2007)
    $4.155 billion (31 December 2006)
    Economic aid - recipientODA, $60 million (2007 est.)

    Public debt(% of GDP)66.4% of GDP (2008 est.)
    74.8% of GDP (2004 est.)
    Agriculture - productscoffee, cocoa beans, bananas, palm kernels, corn, rice, manioc (tapioca), sweet potatoes, sugar, cotton, rubber; timber
    Industriesfoodstuffs, beverages; wood products, oil refining, truck and bus assembly, textiles, fertilizer, building materials, electricity, ship construction and repair

    Industrial production growth rate(%)3% (2008 est.)

    Current account balance$488 million (2008 est.)
    -$146 million (2007 est.)
    Exports$10.09 billion (2008 est.)
    $8.476 billion (2007 est.)

    Exports - commodities(%)cocoa, coffee, timber, petroleum, cotton, bananas, pineapples, palm oil, fish
    Exports - partners(%)Germany 10.9%, US 10.1%, Netherlands 9.7%, Nigeria 9.3%, France 6.4%, Burkina Faso 4% (2008)
    Imports$6.76 billion (2008 est.)
    $5.932 billion (2007 est.)

    Imports - commodities(%)fuel, capital equipment, foodstuffs
    Imports - partners(%)Nigeria 31.5%, France 14.9%, China 7.2% (2008)

    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$2.252 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
    $2.519 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
    Debt - external$14.05 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
    $13.79 billion (31 December 2007 est.)

    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$NA
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$NA
    Exchange ratesCommunaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 447.81 (2008 est.), 481.83 (2007), 522.89 (2006), 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004)
    note: since 1 January 1999, the West African CFA franc (XOF) has been pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 CFA francs per euro; West African CFA franc (XOF) coins and banknotes are not accepted in countries using Central African CFA francs (XAF), and vice versa, even though the two currencies trade at par

    Currency (code)Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States

    Telephones - main lines in use356,500 (2008)
    Telephones - mobile cellular10.449 million (2008)
    Telephone systemgeneral assessment: well developed by African standards; telecommunications sector privatized in late 1990s and operational fixed-lines have more than quadrupled since that time; with multiple cellular service providers competing in the market, cellular usage has increased sharply to roughly 55 per 100 persons
    domestic: open-wire lines and microwave radio relay; 90% digitalized
    international: country code - 225; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2008)
    Internet country code.ci
    Internet users660,000 (2008)
    Airports28 (2009)
    Pipelines(km)condensate 86 km; gas 180 km; oil 92 km (2008)
    Roadways(km)total: 80,000 km
    paved: 6,500 km
    unpaved: 73,500 km
    note: includes intercity and urban roads; another 20,000 km of dirt roads are in poor condition and 150,000 km of dirt roads are impassable (2006)

    Ports and terminalsAbidjan, Espoir, San-Pedro
    Military branchesCote d'Ivoire Defense and Security Forces (FDSCI): Army, Navy, Air Force (2006)
    Military service age and obligation(years of age)18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary male and female military service (2008)
    Manpower available for military servicemales age 16-49: 4,369,735
    females age 16-49: 4,287,042 (2008 est.)
    Manpower fit for military servicemales age 16-49: 3,122,106
    females age 16-49: 2,936,391 (2009 est.)
    Manpower reaching militarily significant age annuallymale: 236,159
    female: 232,617 (2009 est.)
    Military expenditures(% of GDP)1.6% of GDP (2005 est.)
    Disputes - internationaldespite the presence of over 9,000 UN forces (UNOCI) in Cote d'Ivoire since 2004, ethnic conflict still leaves displaced hundreds of thousands of Ivorians in and out of the country as well as driven out migrants from neighboring states who worked in Ivorian cocoa plantations; the March 2007 peace deal between Ivorian rebels and the government brought significant numbers of rebels out of hiding in neighboring states

    Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 25,615 (Liberia)
    IDPs: 709,000 (2002 coup; most IDPs are in western regions) (2007)
    Trafficking in personsCote d'Ivoire is a source, transit, and destination country for women and children trafficked for forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation; trafficking within the country is more prevalent than international trafficking and the majority of victims are children; women and girls are trafficked from northern areas to southern cities for domestic servitude, restaurant labor, and sexual exploitation; boys are trafficked internally for agricultural and service labor and transnationally for forced labor in agriculture, mining, construction, and in the fishing industry; women and girls are trafficked to and from other West and Central African countries for domestic servitude and forced street vending
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Cote d'Ivoire is on the Tier 2 Watch List for its failure to provide evidence of increasing efforts to eliminate trafficking in 2007, particularly with regard to its law enforcement efforts and protection of sex trafficking victims; in addition, Ivoirian law does not prohibit all forms of trafficking, and Cote d'Ivoire has not ratified the 2000 UN TIP Protocol (2008)
    Electricity - production(kWh)5.275 billion kWh (2007 est.)
    Electricity - production by source(%)fossil fuel: 61.9%
    hydro: 38.1%
    nuclear: 0%
    other: 0% (2001)
    Electricity - consumption(kWh)3.231 billion kWh (2007 est.)
    Electricity - exports(kWh)772 million kWh (2007 est.)
    Electricity - imports(kWh)0 kWh (2008 est.)
    Oil - production(bbl/day)60,100 bbl/day (2008 est.)
    Oil - consumption(bbl/day)25,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
    Oil - exports(bbl/day)115,700 bbl/day (2007 est.)
    Oil - imports(bbl/day)80,960 bbl/day (2007 est.)
    Oil - proved reserves(bbl)100 million bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
    Natural gas - production(cu m)1.3 billion cu m (2008 est.)
    Natural gas - consumption(cu m)1.3 billion cu m (2008 est.)
    Natural gas - exports(cu m)0 cu m (2008)
    Natural gas - proved reserves(cu m)28.32 billion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate(%)3.9% (2007 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS480,000 (2007 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - deaths38,000 (2007 est.)
    Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and yellow fever
    water contact: schistosomiasis
    animal contact disease: rabies
    note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)
    Literacy(%)definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 48.7%
    male: 60.8%
    female: 38.6% (2000 est.)

    Education expenditures(% of GDP)4.6% of GDP (2001)

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