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Figure 3. Hungary During the Period of Partition, 1541-1699
Source: Based on information from C.A. Macartney, Hungary: A
Short History, Chicago, 1962, 64.
The partition of Hungary between the Ottoman and
empires lasted more than 150 years. Habsburg Austria
Royal Hungary, which consisted of counties along the
border and some of northwestern Croatia
fig. 3). The
Ottomans annexed central and southern Hungary.
became an Ottoman vassal state, where native princes, who
the Turks tribute, ruled with considerable autonomy. After
Hungarian defeat at Mohacs, the Protestant Reformation
in Hungary. Initially, German burghers in Transylvania and
Hungary adopted Lutheranism; later, John Calvin's works
many Magyars in Transylvania and central Hungary. The
spread quickly, and by the early seventeenth century
noble families remained Catholic. Archbishop Peter Pazmany
reorganized Royal Hungary's Roman Catholic Church and led
Counter-Reformation that reversed the Protestants' gains
Hungary, using persuasion rather than intimidation.
however, remained a Protestant stronghold. The Reformation
rifts between Catholic Magyars, who often sided with the
Habsburgs, and Protestant Magyars, who developed a strong
national identity and became rebels in Austrian eyes.
developed between Royal Hungary and Transylvania and
mostly Catholic magnates and the mainly Protestant lesser
Data as of September 1989