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Chad-Production Factors

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Chad Index

In 1988 the entirety of Chad's cotton was produced in the five soudanian prefectures of Mayo-Kebbi, Tandjilé, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, and Moyen-Chari, plus the Bousso region of Chari-Baguirmi Prefecture, which juts down into the soudanian zone (see fig. 1). Few regions outside these prefectures offered sufficient water and population to sustain cotton production. Moreover, in this land of difficult transport, areas producing a cash crop also needed to be able to grow enough food for their people. Typically, the cultivation of cotton and food crops was carried on side by side. Efforts to extend the cultivation of cotton to the neighboring sahelian prefectures of Salamat and Guéra have had little success. In 1983 and 1984, with production at its highest in a decade, these two prefectures represented only .005 percent of total production. Suggestions also have been made from time to time to bring cotton production to the fertile borders of Lake Chad. Trials have shown the high yields possible there, estimated at 3,000 to 4,000 kilograms per hectare. As of 1987, however, farmers in the Lake Chad area had not taken voluntarily to cotton production. Traditionally, farmers have resisted government efforts to control local production of such crops as wheat, and the history of coercion and government intervention associated with cotton was no inducement.

The government has introduced methods to increase crop yield, which include the expanded use of fertilizers and insecticides. Even so, compared with crop yields of more than 1,000 kilograms per hectare for other francophone West African states (such as Cameroon, Mali, and Côte d'Ivoire), until 1982 Chad's crop yields did not significantly exceed 500 kilograms per hectare; from 1983 to 1987, yields averaged almost 750 kilograms per hectare.

Area under cotton cultivation reached a peak in 1963 of 338,900 hectares. From 1963 until the end of the 1970s, the area under cotton cultivation averaged 275,000 hectares. In the 1980s, however, the area has been consistently less than 200,000 hectares. By 1983 the area of land under cotton cultivation had dropped by 36 percent from the average during the 1960s and 1970s. Several sources estimated the area in southern Chad under cotton cultivation at 30 to 40 percent of all land in cultivation, and in some areas of Mayo-Kebbi Prefecture, it may have been higher (see table 3, Appendix A).

Cotton production has exhibited wide swings. Factors such as climatic conditions, production prices, and civil strife have influenced production. The first crop to exceed 100,000 tons came in 1963, but the 1970s were the best years for production, which from 1971 to 1978 remained well above 100,000 tons per year. Chad reached its all-time record production in 1975. Production suffered from 1979 to 1982 because of the Chadian Civil War and hit a twenty-year low in 1981. In 1983, with the return of some political stability and higher market prices, production improved but then fell from 1984 to 1987, a reflection of declining world cotton prices.

Once the crop is harvested, the producers must sort the cotton to separate lower quality yellow cotton from higher quality white cotton. Since the late 1970s, the proportion of white cotton generally has been 90 percent or more of total production. Going back to the 1960s, the quality of Chadian cotton had been consistently high, except for 1972 and 1973, when the proportion of yellow cotton rose to 18 percent. Since 1980 the quality has remained high at initial sorting, with white cotton representing more than 95 percent of the crop and accounting for 98 percent of production in 1984.

Data as of December 1988

BackgroundChad, part of France's African holdings until 1960, endured three decades of civil warfare as well as invasions by Libya before a semblance of peace was finally restored in 1990. The government eventually drafted a democratic constitution, and held flawed presidential elections in 1996 and 2001. In 1998, a rebellion broke out in northern Chad, which has sporadically flared up despite several peace agreements between the government and the rebels. In 2005, new rebel groups emerged in western Sudan and made probing attacks into eastern Chad, despite signing peace agreements in December 2006 and October 2007. Power remains in the hands of an ethnic minority. In June 2005, President Idriss DEBY held a referendum successfully removing constitutional term limits and won another controversial election in 2006. Sporadic rebel campaigns continued throughout 2006 and 2007, and the capital experienced a significant rebel threat in early 2008.
LocationCentral Africa, south of Libya
Area(sq km)total: 1.284 million sq km
land: 1,259,200 sq km
water: 24,800 sq km
Geographic coordinates15 00 N, 19 00 E
Land boundaries(km)total: 5,968 km
border countries: Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197 km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km

Coastline(km)0 km (landlocked)

Climatetropical in south, desert in north

Elevation extremes(m)lowest point: Djourab Depression 160 m
highest point: Emi Koussi 3,415 m
Natural resourcespetroleum, uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad), gold, limestone, sand and gravel, salt
Land use(%)arable land: 2.8%
permanent crops: 0.02%
other: 97.18% (2005)

Irrigated land(sq km)300 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources(cu km)43 cu km (1987)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)total: 0.23 cu km/yr (17%/0%/83%)
per capita: 24 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazardshot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts; locust plagues
Environment - current issuesinadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water pollution; desertification
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping
Geography - notelandlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body in the Sahel
Population10,329,208 (July 2009 est.)
Age structure(%)0-14 years: 46.7% (male 2,445,841/female 2,381,319)
15-64 years: 50.4% (male 2,386,428/female 2,816,050)
65 years and over: 2.9% (male 126,351/female 173,219) (2009 est.)
Median age(years)total: 16.5 years
male: 15.3 years
female: 17.7 years (2009 est.)
Population growth rate(%)2.069% (2009 est.)
Birth rate(births/1,000 population)40.86 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
Death rate(deaths/1,000 population)16.09 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

Net migration rate(migrant(s)/1,000 population)-4.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
Urbanization(%)urban population: 27% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 4.7% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
Sex ratio(male(s)/female)at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
Infant mortality rate(deaths/1,000 live births)total: 98.69 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 104.72 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 92.42 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

Life expectancy at birth(years)total population: 47.7 years
male: 46.67 years
female: 48.77 years (2009 est.)

Total fertility rate(children born/woman)5.31 children born/woman (2009 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Chadian(s)
adjective: Chadian
Ethnic groups(%)Sara 27.7%, Arab 12.3%, Mayo-Kebbi 11.5%, Kanem-Bornou 9%, Ouaddai 8.7%, Hadjarai 6.7%, Tandjile 6.5%, Gorane 6.3%, Fitri-Batha 4.7%, other 6.4%, unknown 0.3% (1993 census)

Religions(%)Muslim 53.1%, Catholic 20.1%, Protestant 14.2%, animist 7.3%, other 0.5%, unknown 1.7%, atheist 3.1% (1993 census)
Languages(%)French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than 120 different languages and dialects

Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Chad
conventional short form: Chad
local long form: Republique du Tchad/Jumhuriyat Tshad
local short form: Tchad/Tshad
Government typerepublic
Capitalname: N'Djamena
geographic coordinates: 12 06 N, 15 02 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions18 regions (regions, singular - region); Batha, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi, Guera, Hadjer-Lamis, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mandoul, Mayo-Kebbi Est, Mayo-Kebbi Ouest, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Tandjile, Ville de N'Djamena, Wadi Fira
Constitutionpassed by referendum 31 March 1996; a June 2005 referendum removed constitutional term limits

Legal systembased on French civil law system and Chadian customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno (since 4 December 1990)
head of government: Prime Minister Youssof Saleh ABBAS (since 16 April 2008)
cabinet: Council of State, members appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote to serve five-year term; if no candidate receives at least 50% of the total vote, the two candidates receiving the most votes must stand for a second round of voting; last held 3 May 2006 (next to be held by May 2011); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno reelected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY 64.7%, Delwa Kassire KOUMAKOYE 15.1%, Albert Pahimi PADACKE 7.8%, Mahamat ABDOULAYE 7.1%, Brahim KOULAMALLAH 5.3%; note - a June 2005 national referendum altered the constitution removing presidential term limits and permitting Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno to run for reelection

Legislative branchunicameral National Assembly (155 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); note - the 1996 constitution called for a Senate that has never been formed
elections: National Assembly - last held 21 April 2002 (next to be held by 2009); note - legislative elections, originally scheduled for 2006, were first delayed by National Assembly action and subsequently by an accord, signed in August 2007, between government and opposition parties
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MPS 110, RDP 12, FAR 9, RNDP 5, UNDR 5, URD 3, other 11

Judicial branchSupreme Court; Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts; Magistrate Courts

Political pressure groups and leadersrebel groups
Flag descriptionthree equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red
note: similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the flags of Andorra and Moldova, both of which have a national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of France

Economy - overviewChad's primarily agricultural economy will continue to be boosted by major foreign direct investment projects in the oil sector that began in 2000. At least 80% of Chad's population relies on subsistence farming and livestock raising for its livelihood. Chad's economy has long been handicapped by its landlocked position, high energy costs, and a history of instability. Chad relies on foreign assistance and foreign capital for most public and private sector investment projects. A consortium led by two US companies has been investing $3.7 billion to develop oil reserves - estimated at 1 billion barrels - in southern Chad. Chinese companies are also expanding exploration efforts and plan to build a refinery. The nation's total oil reserves are estimated at 1.5 billion barrels. Oil production came on stream in late 2003. Chad began to export oil in 2004. Cotton, cattle, and gum arabic provide the bulk of Chad's non-oil export earnings.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$15.82 billion (2008 est.)
$15.85 billion (2007 est.)
$15.82 billion (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate)$8.4 billion (2008 est.)
GDP - real growth rate(%)-0.2% (2008 est.)
0.2% (2007 est.)
0.2% (2006 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$1,600 (2008 est.)
$1,600 (2007 est.)
$1,600 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
GDP - composition by sector(%)agriculture: 20.5%
industry: 48%
services: 31.5% (2008 est.)
Labor force4.293 million (2007)

Labor force - by occupation(%)agriculture: 80% (subsistence farming, herding, and fishing)
industry and services: 20% (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate(%)NA%
Population below poverty line(%)80% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share(%)lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Investment (gross fixed)(% of GDP)13.7% of GDP (2008 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $2.324 billion
expenditures: $1.91 billion (2008 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)(%)10.3% (2008 est.)
4% (2007 est.)

Stock of money$NA (31 December 2008)
$874.5 million (31 December 2007)
Stock of quasi money$NA (31 December 2008)
$55.23 million (31 December 2007)
Stock of domestic credit$NA (31 December 2008)
$82.81 million (31 December 2007)
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA
Economic aid - recipientODA, $379.8 million (2005)

Agriculture - productscotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca); cattle, sheep, goats, camels
Industriesoil, cotton textiles, meatpacking, brewing, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials

Industrial production growth rate(%)2% (2008 est.)

Current account balance-$1.019 billion (2008 est.)
-$737.8 million (2007 est.)
Exports$4.342 billion (2008 est.)
$3.674 billion (2007 est.)

Exports - commodities(%)oil, cattle, cotton, gum arabic
Exports - partners(%)US 92.8%, Japan 2.2%, France 1.5% (2008)
Imports$1.927 billion (2008 est.)
$1.541 billion (2007 est.)

Imports - commodities(%)machinery and transportation equipment, industrial goods, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports - partners(%)France 17.5%, Cameroon 14.8%, China 9.8%, Ukraine 9.5%, US 7.7%, Germany 5.6%, Saudi Arabia 4.7%, Netherlands 4% (2008)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$1.347 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
$964.4 million (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt - external$1.6 billion (2005 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$4.5 billion (2006 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$NA
Exchange ratesCooperation Financiere en Afrique Centrale francs (XAF) per US dollar - 447.81 (2008 est.), 480.1 (2007), 522.59 (2006), 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004)
note: since 1 January 1999, the Central African CFA franc (XAF) has been pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 CFA francs per euro; Central African CFA franc (XAF) coins and banknotes are not accepted in countries using West African CFA francs (XOF), and vice versa, even though the two currencies trade at par

Currency (code)Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible authority is the Bank of the Central African States

Telephones - main lines in use13,000 (2008)
Telephones - mobile cellular1.809 million (2008)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: primitive system with high costs and low telephone density; fixed-line connections for only about 1 per 1000 persons coupled with mobile-cellular subscribership base of less than 20 per 100 persons
domestic: fair system of radiotelephone communication stations
international: country code - 235; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2008)
Internet country code.td
Internet users130,000 (2008)
Airports54 (2009)
Pipelines(km)oil 250 km (2008)
Roadways(km)total: 33,400 km
paved: 267 km
unpaved: 33,133 km (2002)

Military branchesArmed Forces: Chadian National Army (Armee Nationale du Tchad, ANT), Chadian Air Force (Force Aerienne Tchadienne, FAT), Gendarmerie (2008)
Military service age and obligation(years of age)20 years of age for conscripts, with 3-year service obligation; 18 years of age for volunteers; no minimum age restriction for volunteers with consent from a guardian; women are subject to 1 year of compulsory military or civic service at age of 21 (2004)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 16-49: 1,906,545
females age 16-49: 2,258,758 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 16-49: 1,103,006
females age 16-49: 1,315,620 (2009 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annuallymale: 121,080
female: 121,585 (2009 est.)
Military expenditures(% of GDP)4.2% of GDP (2006)
Disputes - internationalsince 2003, Janjawid armed militia and the Sudanese military have driven hundreds of thousands of Darfur residents into Chad; Chad remains an important mediator in the Sudanese civil conflict, reducing tensions with Sudan arising from cross-border banditry; Chadian Aozou rebels reside in southern Libya; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty, which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries

Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 234,000 (Sudan); 54,200 (Central African Republic)
IDPs: 178,918 (2007)
Trafficking in personscurrent situation: Chad is a source, transit, and destination country for children trafficked for the purposes of forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation; the majority of children are trafficked within Chad for involuntary domestic servitude, forced cattle herding, forced begging, forced labor in petty commerce or the fishing industry, or for commercial sexual exploitation; to a lesser extent, Chadian children are also trafficked to Cameroon, the Central African Republic, and Nigeria for cattle herding; children may also be trafficked from Cameroon and the Central African Republic to Chad's oil producing regions for sexual exploitation
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Chad is on the Tier 2 Watch List for its failure to provide evidence of increasing efforts to combat human trafficking in 2007; Chad was destabilized during 2007 by civil conflict leading to a declared state of emergency in February 2008, and a steady influx of refugees fleeing Sudan and the Central African Republic; the government demonstrated insufficient overall efforts to combat trafficking; Chad has not ratified the 2000 UN TIP Protocol (2008)
Electricity - production(kWh)100 million kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - production by source(%)fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (2001)
Electricity - consumption(kWh)93 million kWh (2007 est.)
Electricity - exports(kWh)0 kWh (2008 est.)
Electricity - imports(kWh)0 kWh (2008 est.)
Oil - production(bbl/day)127,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Oil - consumption(bbl/day)1,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Oil - exports(bbl/day)157,900 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - imports(bbl/day)1,571 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - proved reserves(bbl)1.5 billion bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
Natural gas - production(cu m)0 cu m (2008 est.)
Natural gas - consumption(cu m)0 cu m (2008 est.)
Natural gas - exports(cu m)0 cu m (2008)
Natural gas - proved reserves(cu m)0 cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate(%)3.5% (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS200,000 (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths14,000 (2007 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2009)
Literacy(%)definition: age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic
total population: 25.7%
male: 40.8%
female: 12.8% (2000 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)(years)total: 6 years
male: 7 years
female: 4 years (2005)
Education expenditures(% of GDP)1.9% of GDP (2005)

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